Several scoring systems are used to evaluate the severity of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGB) and the risk of rebleeding or death. The most commonly used scoring systems include the Rockall score, Glasgow-Blatchford score, and Forrest classification. However, the use of simpler definitions, such as the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score, to make a clinical decision is reasonable in areas with limited time and/or material resources and in low- and middle-income countries.
Patients with NVUGB whose medical records included information required to calculate the qSOFA and Rockall preendoscopy scores at the time of bleeding in the emergency department or another non-intensive care unit department were included in the study. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated for the ability of the qSOFA and Rockall preendoscopy scores to predict mortality.
The qSOFA and Rockall preendoscopic scores at the time of bleeding confirmation could be calculated for 218 patients. The mortality rate increased from 3.4% in patients with a qSOFA score = 0 to 88.9% in patients with a qSOFA score = 3 (P < 0.001). The AUROC for prediction of mortality was 0.836 (95% CI 0.748–0.924) for the qSOFA score and 0.923 (95% CI 0.884–0.981) for the Rockall preendocopy score (P = 0.059).
An increase in the qSOFA score is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with NVUGB. The simple qSOFA score can be used to predict mortality in patients with NVUGB as an alternative when Rockall preendoscopy score is incomplete for which the comorbidity is unknown.