27.11.2022 | Original Article
Rapid quantification of phenobarbital and barbital in human whole blood by liquid–liquid extraction combined with DART-orbitrap-HRMS
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This study aims to develop and validate a rapid, simple, and efficient bioanalytical method for the simultaneous quantification of phenobarbital and barbital in human whole blood using liquid–liquid extraction combined with direct analysis in real time (DART) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).
Phenobarbital-d5 and aprobarbital were selected as internal standards (ISs) of phenobarbital and barbital, respectively. A mixed solvent of o-xylene and ethyl acetate at a ratio of 1:6 was used to extract analytes of interest and ISs from 100 μL of human whole blood samples. Phenobarbital and barbital were detected by DART-HRMS. The proposed method has been validated in accordance with United States Food and Drug Administration Guidelines for Bioanalytical Method Validation in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, matrix effect, recovery, stability, and dilution integrity.
The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) of phenobarbital and barbital were both 10 ng/mL. The linearities were in the range of 10–1000 ng/mL (R2 ≥ 0.99). The mean recovery values of phenobarbital and barbital were 99.7% and 88.1%, respectively. The interday and intraday precision values were less than 10.4%, and the interday and intraday accuracy values ranged from 87.6 to 106.7%. Furthermore, the validated method was applied to four cases of phenobarbital poisoning at the Shanghai Institute of Forensic Science.
The developed and fully validated method enabled the simultaneous quantification of phenobarbital and barbital in human whole blood and was successfully applied to authentic cases.