We evaluated the usefulness of 11C-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for grading cerebral gliomas according to the 2016 WHO classification with special emphasis on the presence of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene mutation and 1p/19q codeletion.
In total, 144 patients underwent MET PET/CT before surgery. The ratios of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the gliomas to the mean SUV of the contralateral cortex on MET PET/CT (MET TNR) were calculated.
The median MET TNRs in IDH1-mutant and IDH1-wildtype tumours were 1.95 and 3.35, respectively. From among 74 IDH1-mutant tumours, the oligodendrogliomas showed a higher median MET TNR than the astrocytic tumours (2.90 vs. 1.40, P < 0.001). In grade II, III and IV IDH1-mutant astrocytic tumours, the median MET TNRs were 1.20, 2.05 and 2.20, respectively (grade II vs. grade III, P < 0.0001; grade II vs. grade IV, P = 0.023). In oligodendrogliomas, the MET TNR was lower fin grade II tumours than in grade III tumours (2.30 vs. 3.30 P = 0.008). In differentiating low-grade (grade II) from high-grade (grade III and IV) gliomas, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a higher area under the curve for wildtype tumours (0.976) than for all tumours (0.852; P < 0.001) and IDH1-mutant tumours (0.817; P = 0.004).
IDH1-mutant tumours showed lower MET uptake than IDH1-wildtype tumours. Regardless of IDH1 mutation status, oligodendrogliomas with 1p/19q codeletion showed MET uptake as high as that in high-grade IDH1-wildtype tumours. Therefore, MET uptake for glioma grading was more consistent for IDH1-wildtype tumours than for IDH1-mutant tumours.