The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-7120-10-27) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
MCS, designed the study, collected and interpreted the data, carried out the statistical analysis. MB, AG and PB helped to collect the data. TB, was involved in designing of the study and revision of the manuscript critically for important intellectual content. RS, was involved in designing of the study and critical revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Cardiac and systemic hemodynamics have been historically in the domain of invasive cardiology, but recent advances in real-time 3-Dimensional echocardiography (RT3D echo) provide a reliable measurement of ventricular volumes, allowing to measure a set of hemodynamic parameters previously difficult or impossible to obtain with standard 2D echo.
To assess the feasibility of a comprehensive hemodynamic study with RT-3D echo.
We enrolled 136 patients referred for routine echocardiography: 44 normal (N), 57 hypertensive (HYP), and 35 systolic heart failure patients (HF). All patients underwent standard 2D echo examination followed by RT3D echo examination, including measurement of left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and derived assessment of LV elastance (an index of LV contractility), arterial elastance (characterizing the distal impedance of the arterial system downstream of the aortic valve); ventricular-arterial coupling (a central determinant of net cardiovascular performance); systemic vascular resistances. Blood pressure was derived from cuff sphygmomanometer and heart rate from ECG.
A complete 2D echo was performed in all 136 patients. 3D echo examination was obtained in 130 patients (feasibility = 95 %). Standard 2D echo examination was completed in 14.8 ± 2.2 min. Acquisition of 3D images required an average time of 5 ± 0.9 min (range 3.5-7.5 min) and image analysis was completed in 10.1 ± 2.8 min (range 6–12 min) per patient. Compared to N and HYP, HF patients showed reduced LV elastance (1.7 ± 1.5 mmHg mL-1 m-2, p <0.001 vs N = 3.8 ± 1.3 and HYP = 3.8 ± 1.3) and ventricular-arterial coupling (0.6 ± 0.5, p < 0.01 vs N = 1.4 ± 0.4 and HYP = 1.2 ± 0.4). Systemic vascular resistances were highest in HYP (2736 ± 720, p < .01 vs N = 1980 ± 432 and vs HF = 1855 ± 636 dyne*s/cm5). The LV elastance was related to EF (r = 0.73, p < 0.01) and arterial pressure was moderately related to vascular elastance (r = 0.54, p < 0.01). The ventricular-arterial coupling was unrelated to systemic vascular resistances (r = −0.04, p NS).
RT-3D echo allows a non invasive, comprehensive assessment of cardiac and systemic hemodynamics, offering insight access to key variables – such as increased systemic vascular resistances in hypertensives and reduced ventricular-arterial coupling in heart failure patients.
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- Real Time 3D echocardiography (RT3D) for assessment of ventricular and vascular function in hypertensive and heart failure patients
Maria Chiara Scali
- BioMed Central
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