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The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-018-1454-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Shanshan Bai and Dong Li co-first authors, and contributed equally to this work.
Saethre–Chotzen syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by mutations in the twist family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1) gene. Surgical procedures are frequently required to reduce morphological and functional defects in patients with Saethre–Chotzen syndrome. Therefore, the development of noninvasive procedures to treat Saethre–Chotzen syndrome is critical. We identified that periostin, which is an extracellular matrix protein that plays an important role in both bone and connective tissues, is downregulated in craniosynostosis patients.
We aimed to verify the effects of different concentrations (0, 50, 100, and 200 μg/l) of recombinant mouse periostin in Twist1+/− mice (a mouse model of Saethre–Chotzen syndrome) coronal suture cells in vitro and in vivo. Cell proliferation, migration, and osteogenic differentiation were observed and detected. Twist1+/− mice were also injected with recombinant mouse periostin to verify the treatment effects.
Cell Counting Kit-8 results showed that recombinant mouse periostin inhibited the proliferation of suture-derived cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cell migration was also suppressed when treated with recombinant mouse periostin. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting results suggested that messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, collagen type I, and osteocalcin were all downregulated after treatment with recombinant mouse periostin. However, the expression of Wnt-3a, Wnt-1, and β-catenin were upregulated. The in vivo results demonstrated that periostin-treated Twist1+/− mice showed patent coronal sutures in comparison with non-treated Twist1+/− mice which have coronal craniosynostosis.
Our results suggest that recombinant mouse periostin can inhibit coronal suture cell proliferation and migration and suppress osteogenic differentiation of suture-derived cells via Wnt canonical signaling, as well as ameliorate coronal suture fusion in Twist1+/− mice.