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29.04.2019 | Original Article

Reconsideration of three screening tests for dysphagia in patients with cerebrovascular disease performed by non-expert examiners

Zeitschrift:
Odontology
Autoren:
Satoshi Watanabe, Hideo Oh-Shige, Ichiro Oh-Iwa, Hitoshi Miyachi, Kazuo Shimozato, Toru Nagao
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Abstract

Dysphagia prevalence has increased with increasing elderly population worldwide. Therefore, early detection of dysphagia has become increasingly important. Repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST), modified water swallowing test (MWST), and cervical auscultation, which are convenient for non-experts to assess eating and swallowing and have been frequently used in Japan since 20 years. Using aspiration and pharyngeal residues, the objective of this study was to elucidate the efficacy of the three screening tests performed by non-experts in patients who had swallowing disorders. In total, 102 patients with cerebrovascular diseases who were suspected of having dysphagia were assessed. A swallowing team assessed their swallowing capabilities; videofluoroscopy and screening tests were performed. RSST, MWST, and cervical auscultation were performed by junior dentists who were non-experts in dysphagia. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio in each examination were evaluated using results of aspiration in videofluoroscopy and pharyngeal residues. For aspiration, the highest sensitivity with cervical auscultation (VES) was 93.7%. For pharyngeal residue, the highest sensitivity with cervical auscultation (VES) was 84.3%. For piriform sinus residue, the highest sensitivity with cervical auscultation (VES) was 86.4%. Despite being evaluated by a non-expert, the sensitivity of cervical auscultation (VES) and MWST was ≥ 80%, suggesting their effectiveness as prescreening tests, although the range of specificity was 25.5–68.4% in all examinations. These tests are easy to perform and useful to screen for aspiration or pharyngeal residues before precision tests.

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