The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00394-016-1356-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Several epidemiological studies have analyzed the associations between red and processed meat and bladder cancer risk but the shape and strength of the associations are still unclear. Therefore, we conducted a dose–response meta-analysis to quantify the potential association between red and processed meat and bladder cancer risk.
Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed database through January 2016 and reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Results were combined using random-effects models.
Five cohort studies with 3262 cases and 1,038,787 participants and 8 cases–control studies with 7009 cases and 27,240 participants met the inclusion criteria. Red meat was linearly associated with bladder cancer risk in case–control studies, with a pooled RR of 1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13, 2.02) for every 100 g increase per day, while no association was observed among cohort studies (P heterogeneity across study design = 0.02). Based on both case–control and cohort studies, the pooled relative risk (RR) for every 50 g increase of processed meat per day was 1.20 (95% CI 1.06, 1.37) (P heterogeneity across study design = 0.22).
This meta-analysis suggests that processed meat may be positively associated with bladder cancer risk. A positive association between red meat and risk of bladder cancer was observed only in case–control studies, while no association was observe in prospective studies.
Online Resource 1 Dose–response relation between red meat consumption and risk of bladder cancer, assuming a linear-response model in random-effects meta-analysis. The dotted line represents the predicted curve arising from a restricted cubic spline model. The solid line represents the linear trend and the dashed lines its confidence limits. The median value of the lowest reference category (15 g/day) was used as referent. The relative risks are plotted on the log scale.
Online Resource 2 Dose–response relation between processed meat consumption and risk of bladder cancer, assuming a linear-response model in random-effects meta-analysis. The dotted line represents the predicted curve arising from a restricted cubic spline model. The solid line represents the linear trend and the dashed lines its confidence limits. The median value of the lowest reference category (5 g/day) was used as referent. The relative risks are plotted on the log scale.
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- Red and processed meat consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a dose–response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
Susanna C. Larsson
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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