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We have previously demonstrated in the DIABRISK-SL trial that a trimonthly pragmatic lifestyle modification (P-LSM), as compared to a 12-monthly LSM advice (C-LSM), significantly reduced the primary composite endpoint of predictors of cardio-metabolic disease (new onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glycaemia and markers of cardio-renal disease) in urban participants aged below 40 years with risk factors for T2DM.
We now report results of post hoc analyses for those aged below 18 (n = 1725) in three age groups, specifically of 6–10 years (P-LSM n = 77, C-LSM n = 59), 10–14 years (P-LSM n = 534, C-LSM n = 556) and 14–18 years (P-LSM n = 239, C-LSM n = 260). There was no effect of P-LSM on the primary endpoint in participants aged below 10 years. Participants aged 10–14 years in the P-LSM intervention as compared to C-LSM had a lower incidence of the primary combined endpoint (87 vs. 106 cases; incident rate ratio (IRR) = 0.85, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.72–1.01; P = 0.07), driven mainly by the lower incidence of new onset hypertension (24 vs. 37 cases; IRR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.49–0.91; P = 0.012). Participants aged 14–18 years in the P-LSM intervention had a lower incidence of the composite endpoint (36 vs. 54 cases; IRR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.57–0.94; P = 0.015) as well as a lower incidence of IGT (12 vs. 21 cases; IRR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.39–0.92; P = 0.02), new onset hypertension (6 vs. 15 cases; IRR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.25–0.76; P = 0.004), and new onset dysglycaemia (composite of new T2DM, IGT and impaired fasting glycaemia) (30 vs. 46 cases; IRR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.97; P = 0.03) compared to those assigned to the C-LSM intervention. Limitations of the analyses are the post hoc approach and the small number of events in each group. There were no differences in retention between the two groups.
Our results suggest that, in young South Asians aged between 10 and 18 years at risk of T2DM, a pragmatic lifestyle modification programme may reduce the incidence of predictors of T2DM and hypertension. There is a need for further studies in younger populations to evaluate the impact and feasibility of interventions to reduce the burden of T2DM and associated cardio-metabolic risk.
Please see related article: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-017-0905-6
Additional file 1: Table S1. Effect of pragmatic lifestyle modification (P-LSM) as compared to control lifestyle modification (C-LSM) on the incidence of the primary cardio-metabolic composite endpoint and its selected individual components in 1725 participants below 18 years of age stratified by age groups (PPTX 46 kb)
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- Reducing the incidence of predictors of cardio-metabolic disease and dysglycaemia with lifestyle modification in at-risk persons – results of further analyses of DIABRISK-SL in those below 18 years of age
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