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01.12.2017 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Cardiovascular Diabetology 1/2017

Regulation of visceral and epicardial adipose tissue for preventing cardiovascular injuries associated to obesity and diabetes

Zeitschrift:
Cardiovascular Diabetology > Ausgabe 1/2017
Autoren:
N. González, Z. Moreno-Villegas, A. González-Bris, J. Egido, Ó. Lorenzo

Abstract

Nowadays, obesity is seriously increasing in most of the populations all over the world, and is associated with the development and progression of high-mortality diseases such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its subsequent cardiovascular pathologies. Recent data suggest that both body fat distribution and adipocyte phenotype, can be more determinant for fatal outcomes in obese patients than increased general adiposity. In particular, visceral adiposity is significantly linked to long term alterations on different cardiac structures, and in developed forms of myocardial diseases such as hypertensive and ischaemic heart diseases, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Interestingly, this depot may be also related to epicardial fat accumulation through secretion of lipids, adipokines, and pro-inflammatory and oxidative factors from adipocytes. Thus, visceral adiposity and its white single-lipid-like adipocytes, are risk factors for different forms of heart disease and heart failure, mainly in higher degree obese subjects. However, under specific stimuli, some of these adipocytes can transdifferentiate to brown multi-mitochondrial-like adipocytes with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic proprieties. Accordingly, in order to improve potential cardiovascular abnormalities in obese and T2DM patients, several therapeutic strategies have been addressed to modulate the visceral and epicardial fat volume and phenotypes. In addition to lifestyle modifications, specific genetic manipulations in adipose tissue and administration of PPARγ agonists or statins, have improved fat volume and phenotype, and cardiovascular failures. Furthermore, incretin stimulation reduced visceral and epicardial fat thickness whereas increased formation of brown adipocytes, alleviating insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular pathologies.
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