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Research Highlights aus Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology

05.02.2019 | Chronische lymphatische Leukämie | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Haematological cancer: Alliance to iLLUMINATE the chemo-free sign

Treatment regimens for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) increasingly include targeted agents (such as the inhibitor of BTK ibrutinib or the anti-CD20 antibodies rituximab and obinutuzumab) rather than cytotoxic agents (for example, the DNA alkylating agents chlorambucil and bendamustine).

02.01.2019 | Mammakarzinom | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Immunotherapy: Benefit in patients with PD-L1-positive TNBC

Patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) typically have overall survival (OS) durations of ≤18 months after diagnosis. Two newly published studies reveal that a subgroup of patients with TNBC can derive an OS benefit from immune-checkpoint inhibitors.

18.12.2018 | Antikörper | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Immunotherapy: New window of opportunity with ICIs in melanoma

Patients with resectable, stage III melanoma have a high risk of relapse after surgery. Thus, efforts have been made to improve outcomes using adjuvant therapies, historically immunotherapy with IFNα and more recently with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), or targeted therapy for BRAFV600E/K-mutant disease. Now, three studies reveal that the presurgical setting provides a window of opportunity to improve patient outcomes with ICIs.

26.10.2018 | Antikörper | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Immunotherapy: Insights into the risk of fatal AEs with ICIs

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have transformative effects in a subset of patients, across a range of cancer types. Nevertheless, all patients who receive these agents are at risk of the associated adverse events (AEs), which are diverse, distinct from those of anticancer treatments without a predominant immune mechanism of action and can be fatal. A comprehensive systematic review of the available data provides insights into the safety of ICIs, with a focus on rare fatal AEs.

14.09.2018 | Melanom | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Melanoma: What’s new under the Sun for ICIs?

Two recently published clinical studies provide new insights into the use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in patients with melanoma, regarding the intracranial activity of these antibodies and the optimal monitoring of response to treatment.

14.09.2018 | Molekular- und Tumorbiologie | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Immunotherapy: Sequencing cells of the immune TME

Three studies published in Nature Medicine provide new insights on the immune tumour microenvironment (TME) of three cancer types. The findings have important implications for immunotherapy.

14.09.2018 | Diagnostik in der Onkologie | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Diagnosis: CancerSEEK and destroy – a blood test for early cancer detection

Improvements in early cancer detection are key to increasing eligiblity for curative treatments and thereby reducing the incidence of cancer-related death. However, few screening tests exist for individuals with an average risk of cancer, and those that do exist focus on one cancer type, and are invasive and/or expensive. Liquid biopsy approaches hold promise in the non-invasive detection of cancer, but sensitivity is an issue. A new approach called CancerSEEK addresses many of these limtations and paves the way for a broadly applicable liquid biopsy screen for multiple cancer types.

14.09.2018 | Molekular- und Tumorbiologie | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Paediatric cancer: Pan-cancer genomic analyses uncover molecular drivers

Pan-cancer genomic studies have resulted in a substantially improved understanding of diverse malignancies in adults and have facilitated precision medicine. Two studies recently published in Nature describe similar studies of whole-genome sequencing data, but for paediatric cancers.

14.09.2018 | CAR-T-Zellen | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Immunotherapy: CAR T cell therapy efficacious against B-ALL across age groups

Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are the first FDA-approved cellular immunotherapy, and have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of both adults and children with certain haematological malignancies. The majority of patients initially respond to treatment, but much remains to be learnt about numerous aspects of this therapy, including the durability of responses and the ability to consistently deliver bespoke cellular therapies across different geographical locations. Now, two early-phase trials with results published in the New England Journal of Medicine provide further insight into the use of CAR T cells in patients with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL).

14.09.2018 | CAR-T-Zellen | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Haematological cancer: Favourable outcomes with CAR T cells

Promising results of clinical trials of CAR-T-cell-based therapies for patients with haematological malignancies have been increasingly reported in the past few years. Two studies presented in the 2017 American Society of Hematology annual meeting and published in the New England Journal of Medicine confirm the favourable outcomes associated with CAR-T-cell therapies in patients with refractory B-cell lymphomas.

14.09.2018 | NSCLC | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Lung cancer: Osimertinib strengthens the frontline

Osimertinib, a third-generation inhibitor, can subsequently delay progression of NSCLC in patients with the predominant EGFRT790M resistance mutation. An obvious question, now addressed in the ongoing phase III FLAURA trial, is whether first-line osimertinib would result in better disease control and improve patient outcomes.

14.09.2018 | Mammakarzinom | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Breast Cancer: Expanding ribociclib use

Ribociclib, palbociclib, and abemaciclib are three FDA-approved CDK4/6 inhibitors that, each administered in combination with a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, constitute the frontline therapy for many women with advanced-stage and/or metastatic hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer after menopause. The promising results of MONALEESA-7, the first phase III randomized trial of ribociclib in a population of women with breast cancer before menopause, have now been published.

14.09.2018 | Nierenkarzinom | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Kidney Cancer: CheckMate 214 – a winning combination?

One of the FDA-approved options for patients with advanced-stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and disease recurrence after treatment with a VEGFR TKI is the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab. In patients with melanoma or non-small-cell lung cancer, the efficacy of nivolumab can be improved by combining this agent with the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab. This combination, already deemed safe in patients with advanced-stage RCC, has now been demonstrated to be associated with better outcomes than sunitinib in the CheckMate 214 trial.

14.09.2018 | Antikörper | International Research Highlight | Onlineartikel

Immunotherapy: Nivolumab–ipilimumab – exploiting the mutation burden of NSCLCs

Benefit from frontline immunotherapy in patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) seems to depend on the appropriate use of biomarkers or drug combinations. Now, Matthew Hellmann of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and colleagues extend these observations to combination immunotherapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab (nivo + ipi).