What is Known:
• Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a lifelong condition associated with considerable costs to ADHD stakeholders. Children are at risk of negative outcomes and in need of pre-emptive strategies
• The long-term effectiveness and acceptability of recommended treatments to improve outcomes remains in doubt
What is New:
• A small-scale test of the design demonstrated that the Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs) approach is feasible and can make a useful contribution regarding testing the effectiveness of interventions for children with ADHD to improve long-term negative outcomes
• Treatment by homoeopaths and nutritional therapists may offer novel opportunities to improve outcomes.