The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
KW wrote the first draft of the manuscript and supervised the student working on a subset of this data. JMD is the Deputy Director of the ABC study and oversaw all data analyses. YM is the Masters student who conducted analyses for a subset of the analyses in this manuscript and contributed to some of the writing. CW contributed to the design of the study and edited a draft of the manuscript. RM contributed to the design of the study and edited a draft of the manuscript. EAM is the Director of the ABC study, contributed to the design of this study, and read and approved the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Though migraine and tension type headache are both commonly diagnosed in childhood, little is known about their determinants when diagnosed prior to puberty onset. Our aim was to determine psychosocial- and health-related risk factors of migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children.
871 New Zealand European children were enrolled in a longitudinal study at birth and data were collected at birth, 1, 3.5, 7, and 11 years of age. Primary headache was determined at age 11 years based on the International Headache Society. Perinatal factors assessed were small for gestational age status, sex, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal perceived stress, and maternal school leaving age. Childhood factors assessed were sleep duration, percent body fat, television watching, parent and self-reported total problem behaviour, being bullied, and depression.
Prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache was 10.5% and 18.6%, respectively. Both migraine and TTH were significantly associated with self-reported problem behaviour in univariable logistic regression analyses. Additionally, migraine was associated with reduced sleep duration, and both sleep and behaviour problems remained significant after multivariable analyses. TTH was also significantly associated with antenatal maternal smoking, higher body fat, and being bullied. For TTH, problem behaviour measured at ages 3.5 and 11 years both remained significant after multivariable analysis. Being born small for gestational age was not associated with either headache group.
Although they share some commonality, migraine and tension-type headache are separate entities in childhood with different developmental characteristics. The association between primary headache and problem behaviour requires further investigation.
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- Risk factors for migraine and tension-type headache in 11 year old children
Karen E Waldie
John MD Thompson
Edwin A Mitchell
- Springer Milan
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