The online version of this article (doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-2958-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected mycobacterial skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease mostly affects poor rural populations, especially in areas with low hygiene standards and sanitation coverage. The objective of this study was to identify these risk factors in the districts of Zio and Yoto of the Maritime Region in Togo.
We conducted a case-control study in Zio and Yoto, two districts proved BU endemic from November 2014 to May 2015. BU cases were diagnosed according to the WHO clinical case definition at the Centre Hospitalier Régional de Tsévié (CHR Tsévié) and confirmed by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy and IS2404 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For each case, up to two controls matched by sex and place of residence were recruited. Socio-demographic, environmental or behavioral data were collected and conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify and compare risk factors between BU cases and controls.
A total of 83 cases and 128 controls were enrolled. The median age was 15 years (range 3–65 years). Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders identified age (< 10 years (OR =11.48, 95% CI = 3.72–35.43) and 10–14 years (OR = 3.63, 95% CI = 1.22–10.83)), receiving insect bites near a river (OR = 7.8, 95% CI = 1.48–41.21) and bathing with water from open borehole (OR = 5.77, (1.11–29.27)) as independent predictors of acquiring BU infection.
This study identified age, bathing with water from open borehole and receiving insect bites near a river as potential risk of acquiring BU infection in Zio and Yoto districts of the Maritime Region in south Togo.
Additional file 1: Questionnaire form S1. Questionnaire form used to collect data during the survey on risk factor for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in Zio and Yoto districts of Maritime Region, Togo, May 19–30, 2017. (DOC 84 kb)12879_2018_2958_MOESM1_ESM.doc
WHO | Buruli ulcer. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs199/en/. Accessed 16 Oct 2016.
Junghanss T, Johnson RC, Pluschke G. In: Hotez PJ FJ, editor. Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. 23rd ed: Mansons Trop Dis; 2014. p. 519–31.
WHO: Treatment of mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer): guidance for health workers. 2012. http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/77771. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.
Darie H. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical aspects. Bull Société Pathol Exot 1990. 2003;96(5):368–71.
Hotez PJ, Kamath A. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden. Cappello M, editor. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3(8):e412.
Portaels F, Chemlal K, Elsen P, Johnson PD, Hayman JA, Hibble J, et al. Mycobacterium ulcerans in wild animals. Rev Sci Tech Int Off Epizoot. 2001;20(1):252–64. CrossRef
Debacker M, Portaels F, Aguiar J, Steunou C, Zinsou C, Meyers W, et al. Risk factors for Buruli ulcer, Benin. 2006. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17073079. Accessed 15 Jan 2018.
Bratschi MW, Ruf M-T, Andreoli A, Minyem JC, Kerber S, Wantong FG, Pritchard J, et al. “Mycobacterium Ulcerans persistence at a village water source of Buruli ulcer patients.” edited by Christian Johnson. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(3):e2756. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002756. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Williamson HR, Benbow ME, Campbell LP, Johnson CR, Sopoh G, Barogui Y, Merritt RW, Small PLC. “Detection of mycobacterium Ulcerans in the environment predicts prevalence of Buruli ulcer in Benin.” edited by Joseph M. Vinetz. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(1):e1506. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001506. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Williamson HR, Benbow ME, Nguyen KD, Beachboard DC, Kimbirauskas RK, McIntosh MD, Quaye C, et al. “Distribution of mycobacterium Ulcerans in Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic aquatic sites in Ghana.” edited by Mathieu Picardeau. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2(3):e205. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000205. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Marsollier L, Aubry J, Milon G, Brodin P. Aquatic insects and transmission of mycobacterium ulcerans. Med Sci MS. 2007;23(6–7):572–5.
Marsollier L, Stinear T, Aubry J, Saint André JP, Robert R, Legras P, et al. Aquatic plants stimulate the growth of and biofilm formation by mycobacterium ulcerans in axenic culture and harbor these bacteria in the environment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70(2):1097–103. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Duker AA, Portaels F, Hale M. Pathways of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection: A review. Environ Int. 2006;32(4):567–73.
Beissner M, Arens N, Wiedemann F, Piten E, Kobara B, Bauer M, et al. Treatment outcome of patients with Buruli ulcer disease in Togo. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(10):e0004170. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004170. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Rapport Analyse situation UB Togo.doc: http://proadiph.org/IMG/pdf/analyse_de_situation_de_la_lutte_contre_l_ulcere_de_burili_dans_la_region_maritime_au_togo.pdf. Accessed 23 Oct 2016.
WHO. Laboratory diagnosis of Buruli ulcer. Manual for health personnel-2014: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/111738/1/9789241505703_eng.pdf. Accessed 15 Jan 2018.
Principaux Indicateurs de Santu00E9 2013_Final1x - pb-annuelle-pis-sanitaire-tg-2013.pdf. http://www.stat-togo.org/contenu/pdf/pb/pb-annuelle-pis-sanitaire-tg-2013.pdf. Accessed 23 Oct 2016.
Togo Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2013–2014 [FR301] - FR301.pdf. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR301/FR301.pdf. Accessed 23 Oct 2016.
OMS | Ulcère de Buruli. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs199/fr/. Accessed 16 Oct 2016.
Raghunathan PL, Whitney EAS, Asamoa K, Stienstra Y, Taylor TH, Amofah GK, et al. Risk factors for Buruli ulcer disease (mycobacterium ulcerans infection): results from a case-control study in Ghana. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am. 2005;40(10):1445–53. CrossRef
Ahoua L, Guetta AN, Ekaza E, Bouzid S, N’Guessan R, Dosso M. Risk factors for Buruli ulcer in Côte d’Ivoire: results of a case-control study, august 2001. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(4). https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/59860/48134. Accessed 15 Jan 2018.
Walsh DS, Portaels F, Meyers WM. Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102(10):969–78.
Phillips RO, Phanzu DM, Beissner M, Badziklou K, Luzolo EK, Sarfo FS, et al. Effectiveness of routine BCG vaccination on Buruli ulcer disease: a case-control study in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Togo. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015; 9(1). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287572/. Accessed 23 Oct 2016.
Johnson RC, Boni G, Barogui Y, Sopoh GE, Houndonougbo M, Anagonou E, et al. Assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and associated factors in a Buruli ulcer endemic district in Benin (West Africa). BMC Public Health. 2015; 15(1). Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/15/801. Accessed 13 Oct 2016.
- Risk factors for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli Ulcer) in Togo ─ a case-control study in Zio and Yoto districts of the maritime region
Abiba Banla Kere
Franz Xaver Wiedemann
Damintoti Simplice Karou
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II