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22.06.2019 | Original article | Ausgabe 9/2019

Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 9/2019

Risk factors for relapse and long-term outcome of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Zeitschrift:
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology > Ausgabe 9/2019
Autoren:
Diego Moriconi, Domenico Giannese, Riccardo Capecchi, Adamasco Cupisti, Simone Barsotti, Riccardo Morganti, Eugenio Orsitto, Antonio Gaetano Tavoni, Maria Francesca Egidi
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Abstract

Background

Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) is a rare disease of unclear etiology characterized by the presence of fibroinflammatory tissue in the retroperitoneal space, which can entrap and obstruct retroperitoneal structures, notably the ureters. The disease responds well to steroid therapy, but tends to recur even after years. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term renal outcome of patients affected by idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis looking for predictive risk factors for recurrence of the disease and progression to end-stage renal disease.

Methods

Retrospective observational study of patients with idiopathic RF diagnosed from 2004 to 2017 and follow-up of at least 1 year after the end of first course therapy with steroid, with or without tamoxifen (TMX) and with urological procedures when applicable.

Results

Forty-three patients were included in the study. The follow-up was 93 ± 52 months. All the patients obtained remission after therapy that was maintained until the last observation in 26 of them. In 17 patients, there was at least one recurrence. Risk factors associated with relapse were identified and resulted in smoking habit, onset with acute kidney injury (AKI), low back pain and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) positivity. Renal function remained fairly stable during the long-term follow-up. The renal end-point (doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD) occurred in 8% of the patients; however, eGFR in patients with relapse was similar to that of non-recurrent at the diagnoses, but it decreased over time more in the relapsing than in non-relapsing patients (p group = 0.20; p time = 0.001; p time × group interactions = 0.04). Based on these 4 predictor conditions, patients were divided into “low risk” (with 0–1 risk factor), and “high risk” (3–4 risk factors). The renal end-point occurred in 40% of high-risk patients, while none of the low-risk patients reached it (p = 0.02).

Conclusions

Smoking habit, AKI at diagnosis, ANA positivity and lumbar pain were associated with relapse of RF after initial remission due to steroid and/or TMX therapy; the combination of these conditions was also predictive of worse renal function outcome. Identification of risk factors for relapse can be useful not only to modulate the choice, the dosage of first-line treatment and the duration of maintenance therapy but also for preventing a progressive loss of kidney function, as well.

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