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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Urology 1/2015

Role for intravesical prostatic protrusion in lower urinary tract symptom: a fluid structural interaction analysis study

BMC Urology > Ausgabe 1/2015
Junming Zheng, Jiangang Pan, Yi Qin, Jiale Huang, Yun Luo, Xin Gao, Xing Zhou
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12894-015-0081-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

In this study, XZ designed the research study; JZ wrote the paper; JZ and JH performed the model reconstruction and FSI analysis; WX and JP help in organ contouring and result revision. YQ, YL and XG gather medical data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Numerous studies indicated that Intravesical prostatic protrusion is relevant to prognosis of LUTS, however, the confounding effect that is brought about by prostate volume, urethra anterior curvature angle and other factors makes it hard to evaluate the role of intravesical prostatic protrusion in clinical observation.


We proposed a fluid structural interaction analysis approach. 3D models were constructed based on MRI images, and prostatic urethra diameters were calibrated with urodynamic data. Comparisons of urine flow dynamics were made between models with various degree of intravesical prostatic protrusion, while the intravesical pressure, anterior urethra curvature angle and diameter of prostatic urethra were same among all models to rule out their confounding effects.


Simulation result showed that the decrement of diameter and increment of variation in cross-sectional area for prostatic urethra were related to the degree of intravesical prostatic protrusion. Such deformation would lead to deterioration of flow efficiency and could compromise the effect of bladder outlet obstruction alleviation treatment.


These results provided further evidence for intravesical prostatic protrusion being an independent risk factor for bladder outlet obstruction severity and demonstrated that intravesical prostatic protrusion would be a promising marker in clinical decision making.
Additional file 1: Figure S1. The relationship between pressure and flow rate for five sets of prostatic urethra diameters. (JPEG 175 kb)
Additional file 2: Table S1. Reynolds number of each patient was calculated for all five candidate urethra diameters. (JPEG 109 kb)
Additional file 3: Figure S2. A: Cross section in sagittal plane showing the original model (model 2) and the other two models (model 1 and model 3) share the same urethral path, B: 3 models have the same initial shape for bladder neck. (PDF 30 kb)
Additional file 4: Table S2. Result for pressure flow studies. (PDF 37 kb)
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