Skip to main content
main-content
Erschienen in: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 7/2017

13.03.2017 | Original Article – Cancer Research

Role of BMI and hormone therapy in melanoma risk: a case–control study

verfasst von: Vincenzo De Giorgi, Alessia Gori, Imma Savarese, Antonietta D’Errico, Federica Scarfì, Federica Papi, Vincenza Maio, Piero Covarelli, Daniela Massi, Sara Gandini

Erschienen in: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Ausgabe 7/2017

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Abstract

Background

Currently, the association between body mass index (BMI) and hormone therapies and Cutaneous Melanoma (CM) development is strongly debated. This study was carried out to assess the association between BMI, hormone therapies, and CM risk.

Methods

The present study is a hospital-based case–control study with 605 consecutive CM patients and 592 controls treated for non-neoplastic conditions at the Department of Dermatology in Florence. The associations of melanoma risk with BMI and hormone therapies were assessed performing unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders.

Results

We found a significant interaction of BMI with age (P < 0.0001): being overweight significantly increased CM risk among individuals less than 50 years old (OR = 1.85 with 95% CI 1.14–2.94), whereas the association was not significant for individuals over 50 years old (OR = 1.15 with 95% CI 0.77–1.71). For oestrogen therapy, women taking oral contraceptives (OCs)/hormone replacement therapy (HRT) showed a lower CM risk than men (OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44–0.89), with risk estimates significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than in non OCs/HRT users, which had an increased risk compared to men (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.29–2.53).

Conclusions

Being overweight was significantly associated with CM risk, and this relationship was highly age-conditioned; the second finding was the protective effect of oestrogen therapies for women. Both findings may have a significant impact on melanoma prevention, as the prevalence of obesity and hormone therapy use is increasing worldwide.
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Antoniadis AG, Petridou ET, Antonopoulos CN, Dessypris N, Panagopoulou P, Chamberland JP, Adami HO, Gogas H, Mantzoros CS (2011) Insulin resistance in relation to melanoma risk. Melanoma Res 21(6):541–546 CrossRefPubMed Antoniadis AG, Petridou ET, Antonopoulos CN, Dessypris N, Panagopoulou P, Chamberland JP, Adami HO, Gogas H, Mantzoros CS (2011) Insulin resistance in relation to melanoma risk. Melanoma Res 21(6):541–546 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Brandon EL, Gu JW, Cantwell L, He Z, Wallace G, Hall JE (2009) Obesity promotes melanoma tumor growth: role of leptin. Cancer Biol Ther 8(19):1871 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Brandon EL, Gu JW, Cantwell L, He Z, Wallace G, Hall JE (2009) Obesity promotes melanoma tumor growth: role of leptin. Cancer Biol Ther 8(19):1871 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Zurück zum Zitat Gallus S, Naldi L, Martin L, Martinelli M, La Vecchia C, Oncology Study Group of the Italian group for Epidemiologic Research in Dermatology (GISED) (2006) Anthropometric measures and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma: a case-control study from Italy. Melanoma Res 16(1):83–87 CrossRefPubMed Gallus S, Naldi L, Martin L, Martinelli M, La Vecchia C, Oncology Study Group of the Italian group for Epidemiologic Research in Dermatology (GISED) (2006) Anthropometric measures and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma: a case-control study from Italy. Melanoma Res 16(1):83–87 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, Pasquini P, Picconi O, Boyle P, Melchi CF (2005) Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure. Eur J Cancer 41(1):45–60 CrossRefPubMed Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, Pasquini P, Picconi O, Boyle P, Melchi CF (2005) Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure. Eur J Cancer 41(1):45–60 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Karagas MR, Stukel TA, Dykes J, Miglionico J, Greene MA, Carey M, Armstrong B, Elwood JM, Gallagher RP, Green A, Holly EA, Kirkpatrick CS et al. (2002) A pooled analysis of 10 case-control studies of melanoma and oral contraceptive use. Br J Cancer 86(7):1085–1092. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Karagas MR, Stukel TA, Dykes J, Miglionico J, Greene MA, Carey M, Armstrong B, Elwood JM, Gallagher RP, Green A, Holly EA, Kirkpatrick CS et al. (2002) A pooled analysis of 10 case-control studies of melanoma and oral contraceptive use. Br J Cancer 86(7):1085–1092. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Zurück zum Zitat Karimi K, Lindgren TH, Koch CA, Brodell RT (2016) Obesity as a risk factor for malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 17(3):389–403 CrossRefPubMed Karimi K, Lindgren TH, Koch CA, Brodell RT (2016) Obesity as a risk factor for malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 17(3):389–403 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Key TJ, Spencer EA, Reeves GK (2010) Symposium 1: overnutrition: consequences and solutions. obesity and cancer risk. Proc Nutr Soc 69(1):86–90 CrossRefPubMed Key TJ, Spencer EA, Reeves GK (2010) Symposium 1: overnutrition: consequences and solutions. obesity and cancer risk. Proc Nutr Soc 69(1):86–90 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Kirkpatrick CS, White E, Lee JA (1994) Case-control study of malignant melanoma in Washington state. II. Diet, alcohol, and obesity. Am J Epidemiol 139(9):869–880. CrossRefPubMed Kirkpatrick CS, White E, Lee JA (1994) Case-control study of malignant melanoma in Washington state. II. Diet, alcohol, and obesity. Am J Epidemiol 139(9):869–880. CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Koomen ER, Joosse A, Herings RM, Casparie MK, Guchelaar HJ, Nijsten T (2009) Estrogens, oral contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy increase the incidence of cutaneous melanoma: a population-based case-control study. Ann Oncol 20(2):358–364 CrossRefPubMed Koomen ER, Joosse A, Herings RM, Casparie MK, Guchelaar HJ, Nijsten T (2009) Estrogens, oral contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy increase the incidence of cutaneous melanoma: a population-based case-control study. Ann Oncol 20(2):358–364 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Odenbro A, Gillgren P, Bellocco R, Boffetta P, Håkansson N, Adami J (2007) The risk for cutaneous malignant melanoma, melanoma in situ and intraocular malignant melanoma in relation to tobacco use and body mass index. Br J Dermatol 156:99–105 CrossRefPubMed Odenbro A, Gillgren P, Bellocco R, Boffetta P, Håkansson N, Adami J (2007) The risk for cutaneous malignant melanoma, melanoma in situ and intraocular malignant melanoma in relation to tobacco use and body mass index. Br J Dermatol 156:99–105 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Olsen CM, Green AC, Zens MS, Stukel TA, Bataille V, Berwick M, Elwood JM, Gallagher R, Holly EA, Kirkpatrick C, Mack T, Østerlind A et al. (2008) Anthropometric factors and risk of melanoma in women: a pooled analysis. Int J Cancer 122(5):1100–8. CrossRefPubMed Olsen CM, Green AC, Zens MS, Stukel TA, Bataille V, Berwick M, Elwood JM, Gallagher R, Holly EA, Kirkpatrick C, Mack T, Østerlind A et al. (2008) Anthropometric factors and risk of melanoma in women: a pooled analysis. Int J Cancer 122(5):1100–8. CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Olsen CM, Zens MS, Green AC, Stukel TA, Holman CD, Mack T, Elwood JM, Holly EA, Sacerdote C, Gallagher R, Swerdlow AJ, Armstrong BK et al. (2011) Biologic markers of sun exposure and melanoma risk in women: pooled case-control analysis. Int J Cancer 129(3):713–723. doi: 10.​1002/​ijc.​25691. CrossRefPubMed Olsen CM, Zens MS, Green AC, Stukel TA, Holman CD, Mack T, Elwood JM, Holly EA, Sacerdote C, Gallagher R, Swerdlow AJ, Armstrong BK et al. (2011) Biologic markers of sun exposure and melanoma risk in women: pooled case-control analysis. Int J Cancer 129(3):713–723. doi: 10.​1002/​ijc.​25691. CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Randerson-Moor JA, Taylor JC, Elliott F, Chang YM, Beswick S, Kukalizch K, Affleck P, Leake S, Haynes S, Karpavicius B, Marsden J, Gerry E et al (2009) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and melanoma: UK case-control comparisons and a meta-analysis of published VDR data. Eur J Cancer 45(18):3271–3281 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Randerson-Moor JA, Taylor JC, Elliott F, Chang YM, Beswick S, Kukalizch K, Affleck P, Leake S, Haynes S, Karpavicius B, Marsden J, Gerry E et al (2009) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and melanoma: UK case-control comparisons and a meta-analysis of published VDR data. Eur J Cancer 45(18):3271–3281 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Zurück zum Zitat Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, Green J, Spencer E, Bull D, Million Women Study Collaboration (2007) Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ 335(7630):1134. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, Green J, Spencer E, Bull D, Million Women Study Collaboration (2007) Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ 335(7630):1134. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Zurück zum Zitat Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M (2008) Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 371:569–578 CrossRefPubMed Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M (2008) Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 371:569–578 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Samanic C, Chow WH, Gridley G, Jarvholm B, Fraumeni JF Jr (2006) Relation of body mass index to cancer risk in 362,552 Swedish men. Cancer Causes Control 17:901–909 CrossRefPubMed Samanic C, Chow WH, Gridley G, Jarvholm B, Fraumeni JF Jr (2006) Relation of body mass index to cancer risk in 362,552 Swedish men. Cancer Causes Control 17:901–909 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Shors AR, Solomon C, McTiernan A, White E (2001) Melanoma risk in relation to height, weight, and exercise (United States). Cancer Causes Control 12(7):599–606 CrossRefPubMed Shors AR, Solomon C, McTiernan A, White E (2001) Melanoma risk in relation to height, weight, and exercise (United States). Cancer Causes Control 12(7):599–606 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Tang JY, Henderson MT, Hernandez-Boussard T, Kubo J, Desai M, Sims ST, Aroda V, Thomas F, McTiernan A, Stefanick ML (2013) Lower skin cancer risk in women with higher body mass index: the women’s health initiative observational study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 22(12):2482–2485 CrossRef Tang JY, Henderson MT, Hernandez-Boussard T, Kubo J, Desai M, Sims ST, Aroda V, Thomas F, McTiernan A, Stefanick ML (2013) Lower skin cancer risk in women with higher body mass index: the women’s health initiative observational study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 22(12):2482–2485 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Taylor AW, Dal Grande E, Gill TK, Chittleborough CR, Wilson DH, Adams RJ, Grant JF, Phillips P, Appleton S, Ruffin RE (2006) How valid are self-reported height and weight? A comparison between CATI self-report and clinic measurements using a large cohort study. Aust N Z J Public Health 30(3):238–246 CrossRefPubMed Taylor AW, Dal Grande E, Gill TK, Chittleborough CR, Wilson DH, Adams RJ, Grant JF, Phillips P, Appleton S, Ruffin RE (2006) How valid are self-reported height and weight? A comparison between CATI self-report and clinic measurements using a large cohort study. Aust N Z J Public Health 30(3):238–246 CrossRefPubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Thune I, Olsen A, Albrektsen G, Tretli S (1993) Cutaneous malignant melanoma: association with height, weight and body-surface area. A prospective study in Norway. Int J Cancer 55(4):555–561. CrossRefPubMed Thune I, Olsen A, Albrektsen G, Tretli S (1993) Cutaneous malignant melanoma: association with height, weight and body-surface area. A prospective study in Norway. Int J Cancer 55(4):555–561. CrossRefPubMed
Metadaten
Titel
Role of BMI and hormone therapy in melanoma risk: a case–control study
verfasst von
Vincenzo De Giorgi
Alessia Gori
Imma Savarese
Antonietta D’Errico
Federica Scarfì
Federica Papi
Vincenza Maio
Piero Covarelli
Daniela Massi
Sara Gandini
Publikationsdatum
13.03.2017
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Erschienen in
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology / Ausgabe 7/2017
Print ISSN: 0171-5216
Elektronische ISSN: 1432-1335
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-017-2387-5

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 7/2017

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 7/2017 Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Onkologie

Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Onkologie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.