Shin-ichi Akanuma and Yuhei Yamazaki contributed equally to this work
para-Tyramine (p-TA) is a biogenic amine which is involved in multiple neuronal signal transductions. Since the concentration of p-TA in dog cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported to be greater than that in plasma, it is proposed that clearance of cerebral p-TA is important for normal function. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the blood–brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) in p-TA clearance from the brain.
In vivo [3H]p-TA elimination from rat cerebral cortex and from CSF was examined after intracerebral and intracerebroventricular administration, respectively. To evaluate BCSFB-mediated p-TA transport, [3H]p-TA uptake by isolated rat choroid plexus and conditionally immortalized rat choroid plexus epithelial cells, TR-CSFB3 cells, was performed.
The half-life of [3H]p-TA elimination from rat CSF was found to be 2.9 min, which is 62-fold faster than that from rat cerebral cortex. In addition, this [3H]p-TA elimination from the CSF was significantly inhibited by co-injection of excess unlabeled p-TA. Thus, carrier-mediated p-TA transport process(es) are assumed to take part in p-TA elimination from the CSF. Since it is known that transporters at the BCSFB participate in compound elimination from the CSF, [3H]p-TA transport in ex vivo and in vitro models of rat BCSFB was examined. The [3H]p-TA uptake by isolated rat choroid plexus and TR-CSFB3 cells was time-dependent and was inhibited by unlabeled p-TA, indicating carrier-mediated p-TA transport at the BCSFB. The p-TA uptake by isolated choroid plexus and TR-CSFB3 cells was not reduced in the absence of extracellular Na+ and Cl−, and in the presence of substrates of typical organic cation transporters. However, this p-TA uptake was significantly inhibited by cationic drugs such as propranolol, imipramine, amantadine, verapamil, and pyrilamine. Moreover, p-TA uptake by TR-CSFB3 cells took place in an oppositely-directed H+ gradient manner. Therefore, this suggested that p-TA transport at the BCSFB involves cationic drug-sensitive transport systems which are distinct from typical plasma membrane organic cation transporters.
Our study indicates that p-TA elimination from the CSF is greater than that from the cerebral cortex. Moreover, it is suggested that cationic drug-sensitive transport systems in the BCSFB participate in this p-TA elimination from the CSF.
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- Role of cationic drug-sensitive transport systems at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in para-tyramine elimination from rat brain
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