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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Nephrology 1/2018

Safety and effectiveness of low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease

Zeitschrift:
BMC Nephrology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Vincenzo Bellizzi, Patrizia Calella, Julia Nava Hernández, Verónica Figueroa González, Silvia Moran Lira, Serena Torraca, Rocio Urbina Arronte, Pietro Cirillo, Roberto Minutolo, Rafael A. Montúfar Cárdenas

Abstract

Background

The impact of the low-protein diet on nutrition in CKD diabetics is uncertain.

Methods

The metabolic and nutritional effects of a low-protein (0.5–0.6 g/kg/d), normal-high energy (30–35 kcal/kg/d) diet supplemented with ketoacids (LPD-KA) were prospectively evaluated in CKD patients with (DM) and without (non-DM) diabetes mellitus.

Results

197 patients on CKD stages 3–5 were enrolled. DM (n = 81) and non-DM (n = 116) were comparable for gender (Male 58 vs 55%), age (66 ± 9 vs 63 ± 18 years), renal function (eGFR 23 ± 13 vs 24 ± 13 mL/min). After 6-month, serum urea (DM: 131 ± 58 to 105 ± 49 mg/dl, p < 0.05; non-DM: 115 ± 52 to 88 ± 36, p < 0.05) and phosphate (DM: 4.5 ± 1.3 to 4.1 ± 1.2 mg/dl, p = 0.06; non-DM: 4.3 ± 1.0 to 3.7 ± 0.8, p < 0.05) declined. Fasting glucose decreased in DM (126 ± 52 to 103 ± 29 mg/dl, p < 0.05) without insulin dose increase. These effects were preserved after 3-year. Serum albumin did not change after 6 months (DM: 3.7 ± 0.6 to 3.8 ± 0.4 mg/dl; non-DM: 4.0 ± 0.6 to 4.0 ± 0.4) and in the long-term. Body weight (BW) declined after the diet start (DM: 68.9 ± 14.3 to 65.1 ± 12.1 kg, p < 0.05; non-DM: 66.6 ± 15.1 to 64.1 ± 15.1, p < 0.05) and was stable at 6 months and 3 years. Muscle strength at baseline was reduced in all patients and remained stable during the diet period. Changes of nutritional markers during the study were similar among groups and diabetes was not associated to any nutritional change at the multivariate analysis. As attain wasting, lower BMI (< 23 kg/m2) and albumin (< 3.8 g/dl) levels were present in 1/3 patients at start and along 3 years, cholesterol never dropped below the lower threshold (< 100 mg/dl) and poorer FM (< 10%) was less than 10% during the study in both groups.

Conclusions

In diabetic CKD patients a low-protein diet supplemented with ketoacids improves uremia and diabetes, causes sudden decline of body weight which remains stable over time and has not a negative effect on wasting and muscle mass and fitness. In diabetic CKD patients the LPD-KA is safe and the nutritional impact is the same as in non-diabetics CKD.
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