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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Oral Health 1/2015

Salivary microflora and mode of delivery: a prospective case control study

BMC Oral Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Katarina Boustedt, Josefine Roswall, Gunnar Dahlén, Jovanna Dahlgren, Svante Twetman
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Authors’ contributions

KB: collected all data, performed statistical analyses and wrote the first draft. JR: designed the study, and finalized the manuscript. GD: performed the microbial analyses and wrote the manuscript. JD: designed and supervised the study and finalized the manuscript. ST: designed the study, performed statistical analyses and wrote the first draft. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.



Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that the mode of delivery can influence the composition of oral microflora. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the salivary colonization in vaginally delivered children with children delivered by Caesarian section (C-section) during their first 6 months of life.


The study group consisted of 149 consecutively enrolled infants, delivered either vaginally (n = 96) or by C-section (n = 53) that volunteered after consent of their parents. Saliva samples were collected within 2 days after birth and then after 1, 3, and 6 months. A saliva sample from the mothers was obtained 6 months after delivery. The parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, and hygiene at baseline and throughout the study period. All samples were analyzed with 13 pre-determined bacterial probes using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.


The groups were balanced at baseline concerning all relevant background factors. Gram-positive streptococci (S. mitis, S. salivarius) displayed the highest counts in both groups but a greater diversity was observed in the vaginally delivered group. A. naeslundi, A. odontolytics, F. nucleatum and L. salivarius were only detected among the vaginally delivered infants. The prevalence of S. sanguinis, S. gordoni, R. denticariosa, and B. dentinum increased by age in both groups but the prevalence was significantly lower in the C-section group (p < 0.05). There was a link between the mothers and their offspring’s concerning the salivary microbial profile.


The microbial composition in saliva differs by the mode of delivery during the first six months of life.
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