The extent of the occurrence of the plasmid-encoded colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2 among humans is currently sparsely studied in Western Europe.
To determine the occurrence of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of healthy humans with high occupational exposure to food and primary care patients in Switzerland.
Stool samples from 1091 healthy individuals and fecal swabs from 53 primary care patients were screened for polymyxin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae using LB agar containing 4 mg/L colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of colistin were determined for non-intrinsic colistin-resistant isolates. Isolates were screened by PCR for the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes.
The fecal carriage rate of colistin resistant (MIC value >2 mg/l) Enterobacteriaceae was 1.5% for healthy people and 3.8% for primary care patients. Isolates included Hafnia alvei (n = 9), Escherichia coli (n = 3), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1) and Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 1). None of the isolates harbored the mcr-1 or mcr-2 genes.
There is no evidence for the presence of MCR-producers in the fecal flora of healthy people or primary care patients. Therefore, the risk of transfer of mcr genes from animals, food or the environment to humans is likely to be low in Switzerland.
Xavier BB, Lammens C, Ruhal R, Kumar-Singh S, Butaye P, Goossens H et al. Identification of a novel plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance gene, mcr-2, in Escherichia coli, Belgium, June 2016. Euro Surveill. 2016; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.27.30280.
Skov R, Monnet D. Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance ( mcr-1 gene): three months later, the story unfolds. Euro Surveill 2016 ; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.9.30155.
Zurfluh K, Poirel L, Nordmann P, Nüesch-Inderbinen M, Hächler H, Stephan R. Occurrence of the plasmid-borne mcr-1 colistin resistance gene in extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in river water and imported vegetable samples in Switzerland. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:2594–5. CrossRef
Buess S, Nüesch-Inderbinen M, Stephan R. Assessment of animals as a reservoir for colistin resistance: no MCR-1/MCR-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae detected in Swiss livestock. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2017;8:33–4. CrossRef
Zurfluh K, Buess S, Stephan R, Nüesch-Inderbinen M. Assessment of the occurrence of MCR producing Enterobacteriaceae in Swiss and imported poultry meat. J Food Sci Tech. 2016;1:4. doi: 10.15436/JFST.1.4.5.
Zhong LL, Zhang YF, Doi Y, Huang X, Zhang XF, Zeng KJ, et al. Co-production of MCR-1 and NDM-1 by colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from a healthy individual. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01962-16.
- Screening for fecal carriage of MCR-producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy humans and primary care patients
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II