The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-320) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
There have been no competing interests.
RM was involved in designing of the study and supervising trials. RG conducted the experiments and was involved in the interpretation of the results. NRC was involved in rationally selecting suitable plant candidates for investigation. Extracts were prepared by VM and PP. NB and PF coordinated and provided scientific inputs into the entire study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties.
Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol) (1:1), methanol and purified water) of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo), an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide.
Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae.
The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool.
Additional file 1: Table S1. Mosquito larvicidal screening results of extracts from South African ethnomedicinal plants.(XLS 70 KB)12936_2012_2230_MOESM1_ESM.xls
Mouatcho JC, Hargreaves K, Koekemoer LL, Brooke BD, Oliver SV, Hunt RH, Coetzee M: Indoor collections of the Anopheles funestus group (Diptera: Culicidae) in sprayed houses in northern KwaZulu-Natal. South Afr Malar J. 2007, 6: 30-
World Health Organization: World malaria report WHO Global Malaria Programme. 2011
National Department of Health: National Malaria Programme Performance Review Directorate: Malaria and other Vector-Borne Diseases. 2009
National Department of Health: National Department of Health Strategic Plan. 2010, 11-2012-13.
Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative: The LSDI Annual Report. 2009, http://www.malaria.org.za/lsdi/Reports/2009/LSDIMaputoAnnualReport2009.pdf,
Mouatcho JC, Munhenga G, Hargreaves K, Brooke BD, Coetzee M, Koekemoer LL: Pyrethroid resistance in a major African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis from Mamfene, northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. S Afr J Sci. 2009, 105: 127-131.
Bruce-Chwatt LJ: Essential malariology. 1985, London: William Heinemann Medical Books
Sathiyamoorthy P, Lugasi-Evgi H, Van Damme P, Abu-Rabia A, Gopas J, Pollack Y, Golan-Goldhirsh A: Larvicidal activity in desert plants of the Negev and Bedouin market plant products. Int J Pharmacog. 1997, 35: 265-273. 10.1076/phbi.35.4.265.13314. CrossRef
Thangam TS, Kathiresan K: Mosquito larvicidal activity of mangrove plant extracts and synergistic activity of R. apiculata with pyrethrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Int J Pharmacog. 1997, 35: 69-71. 10.1076/phbi.184.108.40.20663. CrossRef
Evans DA, Raj RK: Extracts of Indian plants as mosquito larvicides. Indian J Med Res. 1988, 88: 38-41. PubMed
Dharmshaktu NS, Prabhakaran PK, Menon PK: Laboratory study on the mosquito larvicidal properties of leaf and seed extract of the plant Agave americana. J Trop Med Hyg. 1987, 90: 79-82. PubMed
Singh KV, Bansal SK: Larvicidal properties of perennial herb Solanum xanthocarpum against vectors of malaria and dengue/DHF. Curr Sci. 2003, 84: 749-751.
Evans DA, Raj RK: Larvicidal efficacy of quassin against Culex quinquefasciatus. Indian J Med Res. 1991, 93: 324-327. PubMed
Govindarajan M: Larvicidal and repellent activities of Sida acuta Burm. F. (Family: Malvaceae) against three important vector mosquitoes. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2010, 3: 691-695. 10.1016/S1995-7645(10)60167-8. CrossRef
Zarroug IMA, Nuggud AD, Bashir AK, Mageed AA: Evaluation of Sudanese plants. Int J Crude Drug Res. 1988, 26: 77-80.
Maharaj R, Maharaj V, Newmarch M, Crouch NR, Bhagwandin N, Folb PI, Pillay P, Gayaram R: Evaluation of selected South African ethnomedicinal plants as mosquito repellents against the Anopheles arabiensis mosquito in a rodent model. Malar J. 2010, 9: 301-10.1186/1475-2875-9-301. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
World Health Organization: Manual on practical entomology. 1975, Geneva: WHO
World Health Organization: Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. 2005, WHO, 13-CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/
Jang Y, Kim M, Ahn Y, Lee H: Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plants against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae). Agric Chem Biotechnol. 2002, 45: 131-134.
Arivoli S, Tennyson S: Studies on the mosquitocidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian J Exp Biol Sci. 2011, 2: 721-730.
Tiwary M, Naik SN, Tewary DK, Mittal PK, Yadav S: Chemical composition and larvicidal activities of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) against three mosquito vectors. J Vector Borne Dis. 2007, 44: 198-204. PubMed
Borah R, Kalita MC, Kar A, Talukdar A: Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010, 9: 2527-2530.
Maharaj R: Global trends in insecticide resistance and impact on disease vector control measures. OAIP. 2011, 3: 27-33. CrossRef
Das NG, Goswami D, Rabha B: Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts. J Vect Borne Dis. 2007, 44: 145-148.
- Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis
Neil R Crouch
Peter I Folb
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II