Genital warts are one of the most common forms of sexually-transmitted disease, but their epidemiology has yet to be thoroughly elucidated. The present study was designed to shed light on the prevalence of clinically-confirmed, self-reported genital warts (GWs) in a representative sample of the university population.
In 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted on 11,096 individuals approached at the Students Information Bureau where they came to enroll for a university degree course. Participants completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire providing information on their sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and any history of clinically-diagnosed genital warts. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to identify any factors associated with the disease.
Our analysis was conducted on 9259 questionnaires (83.4%). Participants were a mean 21.8 ± 4.8 years of age, and 59.6% were female. Overall, 124 individuals (1.3%, 95%CI: 1.0–1.6) reported having been diagnosed with genital warts: 48 men (1.3%, 95%CI: 0.9–1.6), and 76 women (1.4% 95%CI: 1.1–1.7). Overall, 22.5% of the sample were vaccinated (1.3% of the males and 36.8% of the females). The group of respondents aged 30 years or more had the highest incidence of genital warts (males: 5.6%, 95%CI: 2.5–8.6; females: 6.9%, 95%CI: 3.4–10.4). The independent risk factors associated with a history of disease were (for both genders) a history of other sexually-transmitted diseases, and ≥2 sex partners in the previous 24 months. A protective role emerged for routine condom use. Additional risk factors associated with genital warts in males concerned men who have sex with men, bisexuality vis-à-vis heterosexuality, and smoking.
The findings emerging from our study help to further clarify the epidemiology of genital warts in young people, and may be useful to public health decision-makers. This study showed that genital warts occur in men as well as women, and suggests that both genders should be monitored for this disease to ascertain the effects of the free HPV vaccination offered to all girls in the Veneto in their 12th year of life since 2008, and to all boys of the same age since 2015.
Lacey CJ, Lowndes CM, Shah KV. Chapter 4: burden and management of non-cancerous HPV-related conditions: HPV-6/11 disease. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl 3):S35–41. CrossRef
Reitano M. Counseling patients with genital warts. Am J Med. 1997;102:38–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(97)00182-4. CrossRefPubMed
Klavs I, Grgic-Vitek M. The burden of genital warts in Slovenia: results from a national probability sample survey. Euro Surveill. 2008; 13 pii:19032.
Dinh TH, Sternberg M, Dunne EF, Markowitz LE. Genital warts among 18- to 59-year-olds in the United States, national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999–2004. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:357–60. https://doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181632d61. CrossRefPubMed
Blomberg M, Nielson A, Munk C. History of genital warts and self-reported health in 45,000 Danish men and women. Abstract presented at the 26th International Papillomavirus Conference and Clinical Workshop; 2010 July 3–8. Montreal; 2010.115.
Markowitz LE, Liu G, Hariri S, Steinau M, Dunne EF, Unger ER. Prevalence of HPV after introduction of the vaccination program in the United States. Pediatrics. 2016;137(2):e2015 1968. CrossRef
Petráš M, Adámková V. Rates and predictors of genital warts burden in the Czech population. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;35:29–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2015.04.002. CrossRefPubMed
Uusküla A, Reile R, Rezeberga D, Karnite A, Logminiene Z, Padaiga Ž, et al. The prevalence of genital warts in the Baltic countries: findings from national cross-sectional surveys in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Sex Transm Infect. 2015;91(1):55–60. https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2014-051540. CrossRefPubMed
Partridge JM, Hughes JP, Feng Q, Winer RL, Weaver BA, Xi LF,S, et al. genital human papillomavirus infection in men: incidence and risk factors in a cohort of university students. Infect Dis. 2007;196(8):1128–36. CrossRef
Wiley DJ, Elashoff D, Masongsong EV, Harper DM, Gylys KH, Silverberg MJ, et al. Smoking enhances risk for new external genital warts in men. Int J Environ Public Health. 2009;6:1215–34. CrossRef
Cocchio S, Baldovin T, Bertoncello C, Buja A, Furlan P, Saia M, Baldo V. Decline in hospitalization for genital warts in the Veneto region after an HPV vaccination program: an observational study. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17(249)
- Self-reported genital warts among sexually-active university students: a cross-sectional study
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II