18.04.2020 | Sleep Breathing Physiology and Disorders • Original Article
Sex differences in subjectively reported symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in community-dwelling adults with type 2 diabetes
Jonna L. Morris, Susan M. Sereika, Eileen R. Chasens
Sleep and Breathing
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Reports of sex differences in self-reported mood, sleep quality, daytime function, and excessive daytime sleepiness in people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in these subjective sleep outcomes in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) either at high risk for OSA or diagnosed with OSA.
Measures included OSA severity by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and self-reported questionnaires: Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), functional outcomes of sleep quality questionnaire (FOSQ), and the profile of mood states (POMS). Relevant individual, social, and health determinants were included as covariates.
A total of 350 participants with T2D [Mean A1C 8.0% (SD ±1.8)] had mean age 56.5 (SD ±10.5) and were balanced by sex (51% men) and race (60% white, 40% non-white). Reports of sleep quality and daytime function were worse in women than in men (p <0.05), whereas men had more severe OSA than women (p <0.05). In fully adjusted models, there was no moderation by sex in the relations between AHI and the sleep outcome measures. AHI showed a significant association with ESS but not PSQI, FOSQ, or POMS.
In participants with T2D at high risk for or diagnosed with OSA, excessive daytime sleepiness was independently associated with OSA severity, but not self-reported sleep quality, daytime function, or mood. While women reported worse outcomes associated with sleep, these outcomes were not associated with OSA severity.