26.04.2017 | ORIGINAL ARTICLE | Ausgabe 2/2017
SGLT-2 Inhibition with Dapagliflozin Reduces the Activation of the Nlrp3/ASC Inflammasome and Attenuates the Development of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Mice with Type 2 Diabetes. Further Augmentation of the Effects with Saxagliptin, a DPP4 Inhibitor
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
- Yumei Ye, Mandeep Bajaj, Hsiu-Chiung Yang, Jose R. Perez-Polo, Yochai Birnbaum
We assessed whether (1) dapagliflozin (Dapa, an SGLT2-inhibitor) attenuates the deterioration of heart function Nlrp3 and inflammasome activation in diabetic mice. (2) The effects can be augmented with saxagliptin (Saxa), a DDP4-inhibitor. (3) Dapa effect is possibly SGLT2-independent on cardiofibroblasts in vitro.
Type 2 diabetic (BTBR ob/ob) and wild-type (WT) mice received vehicle, Dapa, or Dapa+Saxa for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance test and echocardiogram were performed. Cardiofibroblasts from WT and BTBR hearts were incubated with Dapa and exposed to LPS.
Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 81 ± 1% in the WT and 53 ± 1% in the T2D-cont mice. Dapa and Dapa+Saxa improved LVEF to 68 ± 1 and 74.6 ± 1% in the BTBR mice (p < 0.001). The mRNA levels of NALP3, ASC, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-1, and TNFα were significantly higher in the BTBR compared to the WT hearts; and Dapa and Dapa+Saxa significantly attenuated these levels. Likewise, protein levels of NLRP3, TNFα, and caspase-1 were higher in the BTBR compared to the WT hearts and Dapa, and to a greater extent Dapa+Saxa, attenuated the increase in the BTBR mice. Collagen-1 and collagen-3 mRNA levels significantly increased in the BTBR mice and these increases were attenuated by Dapa and Dapa+Saxa. P-AMPK/total-AMPK ratio was significantly lower in the BTBR mice than in the WT mice. Dapa and Dapa+Saxa equally increased the ratio in the BTBR mice. This in vitro study showed that NALP3, ASC, IL-1β, and caspase-1 mRNA levels were higher in the BTBR cardiofibroblasts and attenuated with Dapa. The effect was AMPK-dependent and SGLT1-independent.
Dapa attenuated the activation of the inflammasome, fibrosis, and deterioration of LVEF in BTBR mice. The anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic effects are likely SGLT2- and glucose-lowering-independent, as they were replicated in the in vitro model. The effects on remodeling were augmented when Saxa was added to Dapa. Yet, adding Saxa to Dapa did not result in a greater effect on myocardial fibrosis and collagen levels.