The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
MB conceived of and designed the study, carried out the statistical analysis, interpreted the results, and drafted the manuscript. FH, and FA helped critically revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We contrasted impacts on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality of diabetes vs. CVD.
Among participants the Tehran lipid and glucose study aged ≥ 30 years (n = 9752), we selected those who participated in the follow-up study until 20 March 2009 (n = 8795). Complete data on covariate were available for 8, 469 participants, contributing to a 67935 person-year follow up. In the analysis of outcomes (all-cause and CVD mortality), diabetes and CVD were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression model adjusting for established CVD risk factors. We used population attributable hazard fraction (PAHF) and rate advancement period (RAP) that expresses how much sooner a given mortality rate is reached among exposed than among unexposed individuals.
Ten percent of the participants self-reported to have pervious CVD, and diabetes was ascertained in 17% of participants at baseline examination. During a median follow-up of 9 years 386 participants died of which 184 were due to CVD. All-cause and CVD mortality rate (95% CIs) were 5.5 (5.0-6.1) and 2.6 (2.3-3.0) per 1000 person-year, respectively. The PAHF of all-cause mortality for diabetes 9.2 (7.3-11.1) was greater than the one for CVD 3.5 (1.1-5.5). RAP estimates for all-cause mortality associated with diabetes ranged from 7.4 to 8.6 years whereas the RAP estimates for all-cause mortality associated with CVD ranged from 3.1 to 4.3 years. The PAHF of CVD mortality for diabetes 9.4 (6.8-12.0) was greater than the one for CVD 4.5 (1.8-7.0). RAP estimates for CVD mortality associated with diabetes ranged from 8.2 to 9.8 years whereas the RAP estimates for CVD mortality associated with CVD ranged from 4.7 to 6.7 years.
We demonstrated that diabetes, which was shown to be keeping pace with prevalent CVD in terms of conferring excess risk of incident CVD, is currently causing more deaths in the population than does CVD.
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- Shadow of diabetes over cardiovascular disease: comparative quantification of population-attributable all-cause and cardiovascular mortality
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