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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Pulmonary Medicine 1/2015

Short-term effects of a nicotine-free e-cigarette compared to a traditional cigarette in smokers and non-smokers

Zeitschrift:
BMC Pulmonary Medicine > Ausgabe 1/2015
Autoren:
Marco Ferrari, Alessandro Zanasi, Elena Nardi, Antonio Maria Morselli Labate, Piero Ceriana, Antonella Balestrino, Lara Pisani, Nadia Corcione, Stefano Nava
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

MF = performed experiments, analyzed data and drafted the manuscript. He have given final approval of the version to be published. AZ = Gave substantial contributions to the conception and design of the study, data acquisition and performed experiments. He have given final approval of the version to be published. EN = data analysis and statistical analysis. Drafting of the manuscript. She have given final approval of the version to be published. AMML = statistical and data analysis. Gave substantial contributions to the conception and design of the study. He have given final approval of the version to be published. PC = data analysis and drafting of the manuscript. He have given final approval of the version to be published. AB = data analysis and drafting of the manuscript. She have given final approval of the version to be published. LP = performed experiments and collected data. Contributed to manuscript drafting. She have given final approval of the version to be published. NC = performed experiments and collected data. Contributing to the manuscript drafting. She have given final approval of the version to be published. SN = Principal Investigator. Designed the study, performed experiments, and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

A few studies have assessed the short-term effects of low-dose nicotine e-cigarettes, while data about nicotine-free e-cigarettes (NF e-cigarettes) are scanty. Concerns have been expressed about the use of NF e-cigarettes, because of the high concentrations of propylene glycol and other compounds in the e-cigarette vapor.

Methods

This laboratory-based study was aimed to compare the effects of ad libitum use of a NF e-cigarette or and a traditional cigarette for 5 min in healthy adult smokers (n = 10) and non-smokers (n = 10).
The main outcome measures were pulmonary function tests, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and fractional concentration of carbon monoxide (FeCO) in exhaled breath.

Results

The traditional cigarette induced statistically significant increases in FeCO in both smokers and non-smokers, while no significant changes were observed in FeNO. In non-smokers, the traditional cigarette induced a significant decrease from baseline in FEF75 (81 % ± 35 % vs 70.2 % ± 28.2 %, P = 0.013), while in smokers significant decreases were observed in FEF25 (101.3 % ± 16.4 % vs 93.5 % ± 31.7 %, P = 0.037), FEV1 (102.2 % ± 9.5 % vs 98.3 % ± 10 %, P = 0.037) and PEF (109.5 % ± 14.6 % vs 99.2 % ± 17.5 %, P = 0.009). In contrast, the only statistically significant effects induced by the NF e-cigarette in smokers were reductions in FEV1 (102.2 % ± 9.5 % vs 99.5 ± 7.6 %, P = 0.041) and FEF25 (103.4 % ± 16.4 % vs 94.2 % ± 16.2 %, P = 0.014).

Discussion

The present study demonstrated that the specific brand of NF e-cigarette utilized did not induce any majoracute effects. In contrast, several studies have shown that both traditional cigarettes and nicotine-containing e-cigarettes have acute effects on lung function. Our study expands on previous observations on the effects of NF e-cigarettes, but also for the first time describes the changes induced by smoking one traditional cigarette in a group of never smokers.

Conclusions

The short-term use of the specific brand of NF e-cigarette assessed in this study had no immediate adverse effects on non-smokers and only small effects on FEV1 and FEF25 in smokers. The long-term health effects of NF e-cigarette use are unknown but worthy of further investigations.

Trial registration

Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02102191
Literatur
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