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28.01.2020 | Original Article – Clinical Oncology | Ausgabe 3/2020 Open Access

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 3/2020

Should MMMT still be treated with adjuvant taxane-based combination chemotherapy?

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology > Ausgabe 3/2020
Viola Heinzelmann-Schwarz, André B. Kind, Marcus Vetter, Kenneth Russell, Siti Omar, Andreas Schoetzau, Kerstin Hoeck, Daniel Fink, Michael L. Friedlander, Neville F. Hacker
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00432-019-03091-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Viola Heinzelmann-Schwarz and André B. Kind contributed equally.

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Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors of endometrial (MMMT-E) and ovarian (MMMT-O) origin are associated with poor prognosis. Suggestively epithelial-driven tumors, their treatment has shifted from anthracycline or ifosfamide-based towards taxane-based chemotherapy. It remains unclear whether this change associates with better outcomes.

Patients and methods

A conjoined Australian and Swiss patient cohort of MMMT-E (N = 103) and MMMT-O (N = 17) was compared to patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (EC, N = 172) and ovary (OC, N = 189). Clinicopathological characteristics, FIGO stage, first-line treatment, and patient outcomes were analyzed. The generated hypothesis was verified in an US-American cohort with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC, N = 1290) and MMMT-O (N = 450) using immunohistochemistry and next-generation sequencing.


Early stage I/II MMMT-E showed a survival plateau after 2.5 years, with no recurrence or death observed afterwards. Relapse-free survival was significantly worse in MMMT-E treated with platinum/taxanes (P = 0.024) compared to non-taxane regimen. Hypothesizing that also MMMT-O might benefit from an adjuvant non-paclitaxel regimen, a second independent cohort of MMMT-O and HGSOC patients was examined. p53 mutations dominated in both cancers with comparable frequency. PI3KCA and KRAS mutations were less frequent: they were more frequent in MMMT-O than in HGSOC (P = 0.015 and P = 0.018, respectively). MMMT-O responded better to a combination of carboplatin with anthracyclines than with taxanes (73.9% vs. 39.4%).


Early stage I/II MMMT-E patients have excellent prognosis if no recurrence has appeared within the first 2.5 years. In MMMT-E, platinum/anthracycline or ifosfamide regimen associated with better outcomes than platinum/taxanes regimens. This might also apply to MMMT-O.

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