The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-019-04656-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Shuangshuang Song and Ye Cheng contributed equally to this work.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Oncology–Brain.
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Glioma treatment planning requires precise tumor delineation, which is typically performed with contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI. However, CE MRI fails to reflect the entire extent of glioma. O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) PET may detect tumor volumes missed by CE MRI. We investigated the clinical value of simultaneous FET-PET and CE MRI in delineating tumor extent before treatment planning. Guided stereotactic biopsy was used to validate the findings.
Conventional MRI and 18F-FET PET were performed simultaneously on a hybrid PET/MR in 33 patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma. Tumor volumes were quantified using a tumor-to-brain ratio ≥ 1.6 (VPET) and a visual threshold (VCE). We visually assessed abnormal areas on FLAIR images and calculated Dice’s coefficient (DSC), overlap volume (OV), discrepancy-PET, and discrepancy-CE. Additionally, several stereotactic biopsy samples were taken from “matched” or “mismatched” FET-PET and CE MRI regions.
Among 31 patients (93.94%), FET-PET delineated significantly larger tumor volumes than CE MRI (77.84 ± 51.74 cm3 vs. 34.59 ± 27.07 cm3, P < 0.05). Of the 21 biopsy samples obtained from regions with increased FET uptake, all were histopathologically confirmed as glioma tissue or tumor infiltration, whereas only 13 showed enhancement on CE MRI. Among all patients, the spatial similarity between VPET and VCE was low (average DSC 0.56 ± 0.22), while the overlap was high (average OV 0.95 ± 0.08). The discrepancy-CE and discrepancy-PET were lower than 10% in 28 and 0 patients, respectively. Eleven patients showed VPET partially beyond abnormal signal areas on FLAIR images.
The metabolically active biodistribution of gliomas delineated with FET-PET significantly exceeds tumor volume on CE MRI, and histopathology confirms these findings. Our preliminary results indicate that combining the anatomic and molecular information obtained from conventional MRI and FET-PET would reveal a more accurate glioma extent, which is critical for individualized treatment planning.
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- Simultaneous FET-PET and contrast-enhanced MRI based on hybrid PET/MR improves delineation of tumor spatial biodistribution in gliomas: a biopsy validation study
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