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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Cancer 1/2018

Small cell and non small cell lung cancer form metastasis on cellular 4D lung model

Zeitschrift:
BMC Cancer > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Dhruva K. Mishra, Ross A. Miller, Kristi A. Pence, Min P. Kim
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12885-018-4358-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Background

Metastasis is the main cause of death for lung cancer patients. The ex vivo 4D acellular lung model has been shown to mimic this metastatic process. However, the main concern is the model’s lack of cellular components of the tumor’s microenvironment. In this study, we aim to determine if the intact lung microenvironment will still allow lung cancer metastasis to form.

Methods

We harvested a heart-lung block from a rat and placed it in a bioreactor after cannulating the pulmonary artery, trachea and tying the right main bronchus for 10–15 days without any tumor cells as a control group or with NSCLC (A549, H1299 or H460), SCLC (H69, H446 or SHP77) or breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 or MDAMB231) through the trachea. We performed lobectomy, H&E staining and IHC for human mitochondria to determine the primary tumor’s growth and formation of metastatic lesions. In addition, we isolated circulating tumor cells (CTC) from the model seeded with GFP tagged cells.

Results

In the control group, no gross tumor nodules were found, H&E staining showed hyperplastic cells and IHC showed no staining for human mitochondria. All of the models seeded with cancer cell lines formed gross primary tumor nodules that had microscopic characteristics of human cancer cells on H&E staining with IHC showing staining for human mitochondria. CTC were isolated for those cells labeled with GFP and they were viable in culture. Finally, all cell lines formed metastatic lesions with cells stained for human mitochondria.

Conclusion

The cellular ex vivo 4D model shows that human cancer cells can form a primary tumor, CTC and metastatic lesions in an intact cellular environment. This study suggests that the natural matrix scaffold is the only necessary component to drive metastatic progression and that cellular components play a role in modulating tumor progression.
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