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01.03.2013 | Regular Article | Ausgabe 2/2013

Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 2/2013

Smoking topography and biomarkers of exposure among Japanese smokers: associations with cigarette emissions obtained using machine smoking protocols

Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine > Ausgabe 2/2013
Mariko Matsumoto, Yohei Inaba, Ichiro Yamaguchi, Osamu Endo, David Hammond, Shigehisa Uchiyama, Gen Suzuki



Although the relative risk of lung cancer due to smoking is reported to be lower in Japan than in other countries, few studies have examined the characteristics of Japanese cigarettes or potential differences in smoking patterns among Japanese smokers.


To examine tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (TNCO) emissions from ten leading cigarettes in Japan, machine smoking tests were conducted using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol and the Health Canada Intense (HCI) protocol. Smoking topography and tobacco-related biomarkers were collected from 101 Japanese smokers to examine measures of exposure.


The findings indicate considerable variability in the smoking behavior of Japanese smokers. On average, puffing behaviors observed among smokers were more similar to the parameters of the HCI protocol, and brands with greater ventilation that yielded lower machine values using the ISO protocol were smoked more intensely than brands with lower levels of ventilation. The smokers of “ultra-low/low” nicotine-yield cigarettes smoked 2.7-fold more intensively than those of “medium/high” nicotine-yield cigarette smokers to achieve the same level of salivary cotinine (p = 0.024). CO levels in expiratory breath samples were associated with puff volume and self-reported smoking intensity, but not with nominal values of nicotine-yield reported on cigarette packages.


Japanese smokers engaged in “compensatory smoking” to achieve their desired nicotine intake, and levels of exposure were greater than those suggested by the nominal value of nicotine and tar yields reported on cigarette packages.

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