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01.12.2012 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

Spatial repellents: from discovery and development to evidence-based validation

Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Nicole L Achee, Michael J Bangs, Robert Farlow, Gerry F Killeen, Steve Lindsay, James G Logan, Sarah J Moore, Mark Rowland, Kevin Sweeney, Steve J Torr, Laurence J Zwiebel, John P Grieco
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-164) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

RF serves as an independent consultant for BASF The Chemical Company, involved in vector control product R&D. NLA, JPG and RF are currently applying for patents through BASF relating to the content of this manuscript. The following authors have received funding support for research projects from manufacturers of insecticidal public health products: Vestergaard Frandsen SA (GFK), Syngenta (SJM), Pinnacle Development (SJM) and SC Johnson (SJM, NLA and JPG). Some research by JGL is funded by industry via the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Arthropod Control Product Test Centre (arctec) which offers consultancy and the evaluation of control technologies, including repellents. JGL is also a co-inventor on a patented insect repellent technology. LZ holds several patents and patent applications concerning the composition and use of novel chemicals discovered for insect control via a Bill & Melinda Gates Grand Challenges-funded project. LZ is currently in discussions with the private sector for developing these leads into products. MJB, SL, MR, KS, SJT declare that they have no competing financial interests.

Authors’ contributions

NLA drafted the original version of the manuscript. MJB, RF, GFK, SL, JGL, SJM, MR, KS, ST, LZ and JPG participated in the revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


International public health workers are challenged by a burden of arthropod-borne disease that remains elevated despite best efforts in control programmes. With this challenge comes the opportunity to develop novel vector control paradigms to guide product development and programme implementation. The role of vector behaviour modification in disease control was first highlighted several decades ago but has received limited attention within the public health community. This paper presents current evidence highlighting the value of sub-lethal agents, specifically spatial repellents, and their use in global health, and identifies the primary challenges towards establishing a clearly defined and recommended role for spatial repellent products in disease control.
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