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04.05.2018 | Original Article

Spectrophotometric photodynamic diagnosis of prostate cancer cells excreted in voided urine using 5-aminolevulinic acid

Lasers in Medical Science
Yasushi Nakai, Makito Miyake, Satoshi Anai, Shunta Hori, Yoshihiro Tatsumi, Yosuke Morizawa, Sayuri Onisi, Nobumichi Tanaka, Kiyohide Fujimoto


To evaluate the feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis using 5-aminolevulinic acid (PDD-ALA) for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) cells in urine samples after prostate massage in patients who were suspected to have PCa. One hundred and eighty-nine patients with abnormal digital rectal examination and/or an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level who underwent initial prostate biopsy were recruited. After prostate massage, the first 60 mL of voided urine was collected. For PDD-ALA, 50 mL was used. The rest of collected urine was used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of PSA and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). After incubation for 2 h, the intensity was measured at 635 nm under a 405-nm wavelength excitation. The results of PDD-ALA were compared with those of an initial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)–guided prostate biopsy. Overall, 126/189 (67%) samples that showed bands of both PSA and GAPDH on PCR in urine samples were analyzed. The area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of PDD-ALA were 0.74, 77, and 67%, respectively. The value of PDD-ALA was significantly higher in patients with Gleason scores of 6 (p = 0.03), 7 (p = 0.005), and 8–10 (p = 0.0002) than in those with negative biopsy results. In the multivariate analysis, high PSA density, abnormal findings on TRUS, and a high value of PDD-ALA were significant markers for prediction of positive biopsy results. PDD-ALA was useful to predict positive biopsy results in patients who underwent initial prostate biopsy with suspected PCa. This PCa-detection method has potential for clinical use.

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