Skip to main content
main-content

2015 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

23. Sport bei Athleten mit erhöhtem kardiovaskulärem Risiko

verfasst von: PD Dr. med. Axel Preßler, Martin Halle

Erschienen in: Sportkardiologie

Verlag: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Zusammenfassung

Athleten werden entsprechend Ihrer Leistungsfähigkeit und des Lebensstils als ein sehr gesunder Teil der Gesellschaft wahrgenommen. Unabhängig davon unterliegen sie grundsätzlich aber den gleichen genetisch determinierten Faktoren einer Krankheitsauslösung wie alle Individuen. Zudem hängt die Prävalenz kardiovaskulärer Risikofaktoren bei Athleten stark von Lebensalter, Trainingshistorie und ausgeübter Sportart ab, sodass mitunter durchaus relevante und ggf. auch behandlungspflichtige Risikokonstellationen vorliegen können. Daher sind Kenntnisse über Zusammenhänge zwischen kardiovaskulären Risikofaktoren und (leistungs)sportlicher Aktivität im Kontext sportkardiologischer Untersuchungen und Empfehlungen zur Trainingssteuerung in jeder Altersgruppe wichtig. Das vorliegende Kapitel stellt die Prävalenz, Verteilung und Behandlung kardiovaskulärer Risikofaktoren bei Athleten vor und berücksichtigt dabei auch sportspezifische Aspekte medikamentöser Therapieverfahren.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Kokkinos P, Myers J (2010) Exercise and physical activity: clinical outcomes and applications. Circulation 122:1637–1648 CrossRefPubMed Kokkinos P, Myers J (2010) Exercise and physical activity: clinical outcomes and applications. Circulation 122:1637–1648 CrossRefPubMed
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Booth FW, Roberts CK (2008) Linking performance and chronic disease risk: indices of physical performance are surrogates for health. Br J Sports Med 42:950–952 CrossRefPubMed Booth FW, Roberts CK (2008) Linking performance and chronic disease risk: indices of physical performance are surrogates for health. Br J Sports Med 42:950–952 CrossRefPubMed
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Marijon E, Tafflet M, Antero-Jacquemin J et al. (2013) Mortality of French participants in the Tour de France (1947-2012). Eur Heart J 34:3145–3150 CrossRefPubMed Marijon E, Tafflet M, Antero-Jacquemin J et al. (2013) Mortality of French participants in the Tour de France (1947-2012). Eur Heart J 34:3145–3150 CrossRefPubMed
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Teramoto M, Bungum TJ (2010) Mortality and longevity of elite athletes. J Sci Med Sport 13:410–416 CrossRefPubMed Teramoto M, Bungum TJ (2010) Mortality and longevity of elite athletes. J Sci Med Sport 13:410–416 CrossRefPubMed
5.
Zurück zum Zitat La Gerche A, Baggish, Knuuti J et al. (2013) Cardiac imaging and stress testing asymptomatic athletes to identify those at risk of sudden cardiac death. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 6:993–1007 CrossRefPubMed La Gerche A, Baggish, Knuuti J et al. (2013) Cardiac imaging and stress testing asymptomatic athletes to identify those at risk of sudden cardiac death. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 6:993–1007 CrossRefPubMed
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Mohlenkamp S, Lehmann N, Breuckmann F et al. (2008) Running: the risk of coronary events : Prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners. Eur Heart J 29:1903–1910 CrossRefPubMed Mohlenkamp S, Lehmann N, Breuckmann F et al. (2008) Running: the risk of coronary events : Prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners. Eur Heart J 29:1903–1910 CrossRefPubMed
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Selden MA, Helzberg JH, Waeckerle JF et al. (2009) Cardiometabolic abnormalities in current National Football League players. Am J Cardiol 103:969–971 CrossRefPubMed Selden MA, Helzberg JH, Waeckerle JF et al. (2009) Cardiometabolic abnormalities in current National Football League players. Am J Cardiol 103:969–971 CrossRefPubMed
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Chandra N, Bastiaenen R, Papadakis M, Sharma S (2013) Sudden cardiac death in young athletes: practical challenges and diagnostic dilemmas. J Am Coll Cardiol 61:1027–1040 CrossRefPubMed Chandra N, Bastiaenen R, Papadakis M, Sharma S (2013) Sudden cardiac death in young athletes: practical challenges and diagnostic dilemmas. J Am Coll Cardiol 61:1027–1040 CrossRefPubMed
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Rawlins J, Bhan A, Sharma S (2009) Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes. Eur J Echocardiogr 10:350–356 CrossRefPubMed Rawlins J, Bhan A, Sharma S (2009) Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes. Eur J Echocardiogr 10:350–356 CrossRefPubMed
10.
Zurück zum Zitat D’Andrea A, Riegler L, Cocchia R et al. (2010) Left atrial volume index in highly trained athletes. Am Heart J 159:1155–1161 CrossRefPubMed D’Andrea A, Riegler L, Cocchia R et al. (2010) Left atrial volume index in highly trained athletes. Am Heart J 159:1155–1161 CrossRefPubMed
11.
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Pressler A, Hanssen H, Dimitrova M, Krumm M, Halle M, Scherr J (2011) Acute and chronic effects of marathon running on the retinal microcirculation. Atherosclerosis 219:864–868 CrossRefPubMed Pressler A, Hanssen H, Dimitrova M, Krumm M, Halle M, Scherr J (2011) Acute and chronic effects of marathon running on the retinal microcirculation. Atherosclerosis 219:864–868 CrossRefPubMed
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Radtke T, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Brugger N, Schafer D, Saner H, Wilhelm M (2014) Ultra-endurance sports have no negative impact on indices of arterial stiffness. Eur J Appl Physiol 114:49–57 CrossRefPubMed Radtke T, Schmidt-Trucksass A, Brugger N, Schafer D, Saner H, Wilhelm M (2014) Ultra-endurance sports have no negative impact on indices of arterial stiffness. Eur J Appl Physiol 114:49–57 CrossRefPubMed
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Borjesson M, Urhausen A, Kouidi E et al. (2011) Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged/ senior individuals engaged in leisure-time sport activities: position stand from the sections of exercise physiology and sports cardiology of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 18:446–458 CrossRefPubMed Borjesson M, Urhausen A, Kouidi E et al. (2011) Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged/ senior individuals engaged in leisure-time sport activities: position stand from the sections of exercise physiology and sports cardiology of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 18:446–458 CrossRefPubMed
15.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Connor FG, Meyering CD, Patel R, Oriscello RP (2007) Hypertension, athletes, and the sports physician: implications of JNC VII, the Fourth Report, and the 36th Bethesda Conference Guidelines. Curr Sports Med Rep 6:80–84 PubMed O’Connor FG, Meyering CD, Patel R, Oriscello RP (2007) Hypertension, athletes, and the sports physician: implications of JNC VII, the Fourth Report, and the 36th Bethesda Conference Guidelines. Curr Sports Med Rep 6:80–84 PubMed
16.
Zurück zum Zitat de Matos LD, Caldeira NA, Perlingeiro PS, dos S, I, Negrao CE, Azevedo LF (2011) Cardiovascular risk and clinical factors in athletes: 10 years of evaluation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:943–950 CrossRefPubMed de Matos LD, Caldeira NA, Perlingeiro PS, dos S, I, Negrao CE, Azevedo LF (2011) Cardiovascular risk and clinical factors in athletes: 10 years of evaluation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:943–950 CrossRefPubMed
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Hernelahti M, Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Karjalainen J, Sarna S (1998) Hypertension in master endurance athletes. J Hypertens 16:1573–1577 CrossRefPubMed Hernelahti M, Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Karjalainen J, Sarna S (1998) Hypertension in master endurance athletes. J Hypertens 16:1573–1577 CrossRefPubMed
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Cornelissen VA, Smart NA (2013) Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc 2:e004473. Doi: 10.1161/ JAHA.112.004473 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Cornelissen VA, Smart NA (2013) Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc 2:e004473. Doi: 10.1161/ JAHA.112.004473 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K et al. (2013) ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 34:2159–2219 CrossRefPubMed Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K et al. (2013) ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 34:2159–2219 CrossRefPubMed
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Oliveira LP, Lawless CE (2010) Hypertension update and cardiovascular risk reduction in physically active individuals and athletes. Phys Sportsmed 38:11–20 CrossRefPubMed Oliveira LP, Lawless CE (2010) Hypertension update and cardiovascular risk reduction in physically active individuals and athletes. Phys Sportsmed 38:11–20 CrossRefPubMed
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Weiss SA, Blumenthal RS, Sharrett AR, Redberg RF, Mora S (2010) Exercise blood pressure and future cardiovascular death in asymptomatic individuals. Circulation 121: 2109–2116 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Weiss SA, Blumenthal RS, Sharrett AR, Redberg RF, Mora S (2010) Exercise blood pressure and future cardiovascular death in asymptomatic individuals. Circulation 121: 2109–2116 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Le VV, Mitiku T, Sungar G, Myers J, Froelicher V (2008) The blood pressure response to dynamic exercise testing: a systematic review. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 51:135–160 CrossRefPubMed Le VV, Mitiku T, Sungar G, Myers J, Froelicher V (2008) The blood pressure response to dynamic exercise testing: a systematic review. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 51:135–160 CrossRefPubMed
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Thanassoulis G, Lyass A, Benjamin EJ et al. (2012) Relations of exercise blood pressure response to cardiovascular risk factors and vascular function in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 125:2836–2843 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Thanassoulis G, Lyass A, Benjamin EJ et al. (2012) Relations of exercise blood pressure response to cardiovascular risk factors and vascular function in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 125:2836–2843 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Eisenmann JC (2002) Blood lipids and lipoproteins in child and adolescent athletes. Sports Med 32:297–307 CrossRefPubMed Eisenmann JC (2002) Blood lipids and lipoproteins in child and adolescent athletes. Sports Med 32:297–307 CrossRefPubMed
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Williams PT (1997) Relationship of distance run per week to coronary heart disease risk factors in 8283 male runners. The National Runners' Health Study. Arch Intern Med 157:191–198 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Williams PT (1997) Relationship of distance run per week to coronary heart disease risk factors in 8283 male runners. The National Runners' Health Study. Arch Intern Med 157:191–198 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Parker BA, Thompson PD (2012) Effect of statins on skeletal muscle: exercise, myopathy, and muscle outcomes. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 40:188–194 PubMedPubMedCentral Parker BA, Thompson PD (2012) Effect of statins on skeletal muscle: exercise, myopathy, and muscle outcomes. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 40:188–194 PubMedPubMedCentral
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Sinzinger H, O’Grady J (2004) Professional athletes suffering from familial hypercholesterolaemia rarely tolerate statin treatment because of muscular problems. Br J Clin Pharmacol 57:525–528 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Sinzinger H, O’Grady J (2004) Professional athletes suffering from familial hypercholesterolaemia rarely tolerate statin treatment because of muscular problems. Br J Clin Pharmacol 57:525–528 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Rengo JL, Savage PD, Toth MJ, Ades PA (2014) Statin Therapy Does Not Attenuate Exercise Training Response in Cardiac Rehabilitation. J Am Coll Cardiol 63:2050–2051 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Rengo JL, Savage PD, Toth MJ, Ades PA (2014) Statin Therapy Does Not Attenuate Exercise Training Response in Cardiac Rehabilitation. J Am Coll Cardiol 63:2050–2051 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B et al. (2010) Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care 33:e147–e167 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B et al. (2010) Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care 33:e147–e167 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Halle M, Kemmer F, Stumvoll M, Thurm U, Zimmer P (2008) Körperliche Aktivität und Diabetes mellitus. Deutsche Diabetes-Gesellschaft Halle M, Kemmer F, Stumvoll M, Thurm U, Zimmer P (2008) Körperliche Aktivität und Diabetes mellitus. Deutsche Diabetes-Gesellschaft
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Diehl K, Thiel A, Zipfel S, Mayer J, Schneider S (2014) Substance use among elite adolescent athletes: findings from the GOAL Study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 24:250–258 CrossRefPubMed Diehl K, Thiel A, Zipfel S, Mayer J, Schneider S (2014) Substance use among elite adolescent athletes: findings from the GOAL Study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 24:250–258 CrossRefPubMed
32.
Zurück zum Zitat van Teeffelen WM, de Beus, Mosterd A et al. (2009) Risk factors for exercise-related acute cardiac events. A case-control study. Br J Sports Med 43:722–725 CrossRefPubMed van Teeffelen WM, de Beus, Mosterd A et al. (2009) Risk factors for exercise-related acute cardiac events. A case-control study. Br J Sports Med 43:722–725 CrossRefPubMed
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Pukkala E, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, Kujala U, Sarna S (2000) Cancer incidence among Finnish world class male athletes. Int J Sports Med 21:216–220 CrossRefPubMed Pukkala E, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, Kujala U, Sarna S (2000) Cancer incidence among Finnish world class male athletes. Int J Sports Med 21:216–220 CrossRefPubMed
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Alaranta A, Alaranta H, Patja K et al. (2006) Snuff use and smoking in Finnish olympic athletes. Int J Sports Med 27:581–586 CrossRefPubMed Alaranta A, Alaranta H, Patja K et al. (2006) Snuff use and smoking in Finnish olympic athletes. Int J Sports Med 27:581–586 CrossRefPubMed
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Marclay F, Grata E, Perrenoud L, Saugy M (2011) A oneyear monitoring of nicotine use in sport: frontier between potential performance enhancement and addiction issues. Forensic Sci Int 213:73–84 CrossRefPubMed Marclay F, Grata E, Perrenoud L, Saugy M (2011) A oneyear monitoring of nicotine use in sport: frontier between potential performance enhancement and addiction issues. Forensic Sci Int 213:73–84 CrossRefPubMed
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Wuestenfeld JC, Wolfarth B (2013) Special considerations for adolescent athletic and asthmatic patients. Open Access J Sports Med 4:1–7 PubMedPubMedCentral Wuestenfeld JC, Wolfarth B (2013) Special considerations for adolescent athletic and asthmatic patients. Open Access J Sports Med 4:1–7 PubMedPubMedCentral
37.
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Mengelkoch LJ, Pollock ML, Limacher MC et al. (1997) Effects of age, physical training, and physical fitness on coronary heart disease risk factors in older track athletes at twenty-year follow-up. J Am Geriatr Soc 45:1446–1453 CrossRefPubMed Mengelkoch LJ, Pollock ML, Limacher MC et al. (1997) Effects of age, physical training, and physical fitness on coronary heart disease risk factors in older track athletes at twenty-year follow-up. J Am Geriatr Soc 45:1446–1453 CrossRefPubMed
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Pihl E, Jurimae T (2001) Relationships between body weight change and cardiovascular disease risk factors in male former athletes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:1057–1062 CrossRefPubMed Pihl E, Jurimae T (2001) Relationships between body weight change and cardiovascular disease risk factors in male former athletes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:1057–1062 CrossRefPubMed
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Yang X, Telama R, Hirvensalo M, Viikari JS, Raitakari OT (2009) Sustained participation in youth sport decreases metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Int J Obes (Lond) 33:1219–1226 CrossRef Yang X, Telama R, Hirvensalo M, Viikari JS, Raitakari OT (2009) Sustained participation in youth sport decreases metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Int J Obes (Lond) 33:1219–1226 CrossRef
41.
Zurück zum Zitat La Gerche A, Taylor AJ, Prior DL (2009) Athlete´s heart: the potential for multimodality imaging to address the critical remaining questions. JACC cardiovasc Imag 2: 350–63 CrossRef La Gerche A, Taylor AJ, Prior DL (2009) Athlete´s heart: the potential for multimodality imaging to address the critical remaining questions. JACC cardiovasc Imag 2: 350–63 CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Sport bei Athleten mit erhöhtem kardiovaskulärem Risiko
verfasst von
PD Dr. med. Axel Preßler
Martin Halle
Copyright-Jahr
2015
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43711-7_23

Arthropedia

Grundlagenwissen der Arthroskopie und Gelenkchirurgie. Erweitert durch Fallbeispiele, DICOM-Daten, Videos und Abbildungen. » Jetzt entdecken

Neu im Fachgebiet Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie

Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.