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01.12.2015 | Study protocol | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2015

Strengthening HIV surveillance in the antiretroviral therapy era: rationale and design of a longitudinal study to monitor HIV prevalence and incidence in the uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Ayesha BM Kharsany, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Anneke Grobler, Lyle R. Mckinnon, Natasha Samsunder, Janet A Frohlich, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Adrian Puren, Alex Welte, Gavin George, Kaymarlin Govender, Carlos Toledo, Zawadi Chipeta, Lycias Zembe, Mary T Glenshaw, Lorna Madurai, Varough M Deyde, Alfred Bere
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

ABMK is the principal investigator. ABMK, CC and DK are responsible for study implementation and quality assurance; AG for statistical analysis; NS, VMD and ZC for laboratory quality assurance; JF for community engagement; AP and LM for laboratory testing protocols; AW for modelling methods for HIV incidence, GG and KG for household and individual level data collection and CT, LZ, MTG and QAK for epidemiological support. All authors contributed to the design and writing of the study protocol. ABMK and LMK wrote the first draft of this manuscript and all authors CC, DK, AG, NS, ZC, JF, QAK, AP, LM, AW, GG, KG, CT, LZ, VMD, AB and MTG critically reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.



South Africa has over 6,000,000 HIV infected individuals and the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) is the most severely affected. As public health initiatives to better control the HIV epidemic are implemented, timely, detailed and robust surveillance data are needed to monitor, evaluate and inform the programmatic interventions and policies over time. We describe the rationale and design of the HIV Incidence Provincial Surveillance System (HIPSS) to monitor HIV prevalence and incidence.


The household-based survey will include a sample of men and women from two sub-districts of the uMgungundlovu municipality (Vulindlela and the Greater Edendale) of KZN, South Africa. The study is designed as two sequential cross-sectional surveys of 10,000 randomly selected individuals aged 15–49 years to be conducted one year apart. From the cross sectional surveys, two sequential cohorts of HIV negative individuals aged 15–35 years will be followed-up one year later to measure the primary outcome of HIV incidence. Secondary outcomes include the laboratory measurements for pulmonary tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections and evaluating tests for estimating population-level HIV incidence.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, HIV-1 RNA viral load, and CD4 cell counts in HIV positive individuals will assess the effectiveness of the HIV treatment cascade. Household and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to HIV programmatic interventions and risk behaviours will be assessed as predictors of HIV incidence. The incidence rate ratio of the two cohorts will be calculated to quantify the change in HIV incidence between consecutive samples. In anticipation of better availability of population-level HIV prevention and treatment programmes leading to decreases in HIV incidence, the sample size provides 84 % power to detect a reduction of 30 % in the HIV incidence rate between surveys.


The results from HIPSS will provide critical data regarding HIV prevalence and incidence in this community and will establish whether HIV prevention and treatment efforts in a “real world”, non-trial setting have an impact on HIV incidence at a population level. Importantly, the study design and methods will inform future methods for HIV surveillance.
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