Purpose To examine men and women’s perceptions of inter-role balance/imbalance in work, arthritis, and personal roles and its association with demographic, health and employment factors, including job stress, career satisfaction, job disruptions, absenteeism and perceived productivity losses. Methods Participants were employed, aged ≥40 years and diagnosed with osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis. They were recruited through community advertising and rheumatology clinics in two Canadian provinces. Respondents completed a 35–45 min telephone interview and a 20-min self-administered questionnaire assessing role perceptions [(arthritis negatively impacts work (A → W); work/personal life negatively impact arthritis (W/P → A); work as a positive role (W +))], demographic, health and work context information. Analyses included exploratory factor analysis and multivariate regressions. Results Findings revealed similarities between men (n = 104) and women (n = 248) in health, work and role perceptions, although women reported more benefits of working with arthritis (W+) than men. Some gender differences were found in factors associated with inter-role perceptions highlighting the importance of children, fatigue, unpredictable work hours, job control, and workplace activity limitations. Role perceptions were associated with work outcomes but only one perception, W/P → A, interacted with gender. Among men, greater perceptions that work and personal demands interfered with managing arthritis were associated with more job disruptions. Conclusions This study revealed negative and positive inter-role perceptions related to working with a chronic illness and associations with work outcomes. It highlights potentially modifiable factors that could assess risk and inform interventions to improve role balance and working experiences.
Bianchi SM, Milkie MA. Work and family research in the first decade of the 21st century. J Marriage Fam. 2010;72(3):705–25. CrossRef
Duxbury L, Higgins C. Report Four: Who is at risk? Predictors of work-life conflict. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada; 2005.
Eby L, Casper L, Lockwood A, Bordeaux C, Brinley A. Work and family research in IO/OB: content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002). J Vocat Behav. 2005;66(1):124–97. CrossRef
Schieman S, Glavin P. Trouble at the border? Gender, flexibility at work, and the work-home interface. Soc Probl. 2008;55(4):590–611. CrossRef
Voydanoff P. Linkages between the work-family interface and work, family, and individual outcomes: an integrative model. J Fam Issues. 2002;23(1):138–64. CrossRef
Brault MW, Hootman J, Helmick CG, Theis KA, Armour BS. Prevalence and most common causes of disability among adults-United States, 2005. Morb Mortal Wkl Rep. 2009;58(16):421–6.
Badley EM, Wang PP. The contribution of arthritis and arthritis disability to nonparticipation in the labor force: a Canadian example. J Rheumatol. 2001;28(5):1077–82. PubMed
Badley EM, DesMeules M. Introduction arthritis in Canada an ongoing challenge. Ottawa: Health Canada; 2003.
Kaptein SA, Gignac MA, Badley EM. Differences in the workforce experiences of women and men with arthritis disability: a population health perspective. Arthritis Care Res. 2009;61(5):605–13. CrossRef
Burton W, Morrison A, Maclean R, Ruderman E. Systematic review of studies of productivity loss due to rheumatoid arthritis. Occup Med. 2006;56(1):18–27. CrossRef
Lacaille D, Hogg RS. The effect of arthritis on working life expectancy. J Rheumatol. 2001;28(10):2315–9. PubMed
Sokka T, Kautiainen H, Pincus T, Verstappen SM, Aggarwal A, Alten R, et al. Work disability remains a major problem in rheumatoid arthritis in the 2000s: data from 32 countries in the QUEST-RA study. Arthrtis Res Ther. 2010;12(2):R42. CrossRef
Ward MM, Reveille JD, Learch TJ, Davis JC Jr, Weisman MH. Impact of ankylosing spondylitis on work and family life: comparisons with the US population. Arthritis Care Res. 2008;59(4):497–503. CrossRef
Yelin E, Tonner C, Trupin L, Panopalis P, Yazdany J, Julian L, et al. Work loss and work entry among persons with systemic lupus erythematosus: comparisons with a national matched sample. Arthritis Care Res. 2009;61(2):247–58. CrossRef
Allaire SH. Vocational rehabilitation for persons with rheumatoid arthritis. J Vocat Rehabil. 1998;10(3):253–60. CrossRef
Gignac MA, Cao X, Lacaille D, Anis AH, Badley EM. Arthritis-related work transitions: a prospective analysis of reported productivity losses, work changes, and leaving the labor force. Arthritis Care Res. 2008;59(12):1805–13. CrossRef
Gignac MA, Cao X, Tang K, Beaton DE. Examination of arthritis-related work place activity limitations and intermittent disability over four-and-a-half years and its relationship to job modifications and outcomes. Arthritis Care Res. 2011;63(7):953–62. CrossRef
Lacaille D, White MA, Backman CL, Gignac MA. Problems faced at work due to inflammatory arthritis: new insights gained from understanding patients’ perspective. Arthritis Care Res. 2007;57(7):1269–79. CrossRef
Eberhardt K, Larsson B-M, Nived K, Lindqvist E. Work disability in rheumatoid arthritis–development over 15 years and evaluation of predictive factors over time. J Rheumatol. 2007;34(3):481–7. PubMed
Gignac MA, Sutton D, Badley EM. Re examining the arthritis-employment interface: perceptions of arthritis-work spillover among employed adults. Arthritis Care Res. 2006;55(2):233–40. CrossRef
Verstappen SM, Bijlsma JW, Verkleij H, Buskens E, Blaauw AA, ter Borg EJ, et al. Overview of work disability in rheumatoid arthritis patients as observed in cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys. Arthritis Care Res. 2004;51(3):488–97. CrossRef
Gignac MAM, Backman CL, Kaptein S, Lacaille D, Beaton DE, Hofstetter C, et al. Tension at the borders: perceptions of role overload, conflict, strain and facilitation in work, family and health roles among employed individuals with arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012;51(2):324–32. CrossRef
Kaptein et al. Choosing where to put your energy: a qualitative analysis of the role of physical activity in the lives of working adults with arthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2013;65(7):1070–6.
Bieleman HJ, Oosterveld FG, Oostveen JC, Reneman MF, Groothoff JW. Work participation and health status in early osteoarthritis of the hip and/or knee: a comparison between the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee and the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Arthritis Care Res. 2010;62(5):683–9. CrossRef
McNair DM, Douglas M, Lorr M, Droppleman LF. Manual for the profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service; 1971.
Dwyer DJ, Ganster DC. The effects of job demands and control on employee attendance and satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 1991;12(595):608.
Beaton DE, Tang K, Gignac MA, Lacaille D, Badley EM, Anis AH, et al. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of five at-work productivity measures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2010;62(1):28–37. CrossRef
Gignac MA, Badley EM, Lacaille D, Cott CC, Adam P, Anis AH. Managing arthritis and employment: making arthritis-related work changes as a means of adaptation. Arthritis Care Res. 2004;51(6):909–16. CrossRef
Gignac MA. Arthritis and employment: an examination of behavioral coping efforts to manage workplace activity limitations. Arthritis Care Res. 2005;53(3):328–36. CrossRef
Bacharach S, Bamberger P, Conley S. Work-home conflict among nurses and engineers: mediating the impact of role stress on burnout and satisfaction with work. J Organ Behav. 1991;12(1):39–53. CrossRef
Van der Doef M, Maes S. The job demand-control (-support) model and psychological well-being: a review of 20 years of empirical research. Work Stress. 1999;13(2):87–114. CrossRef
World Health Organization. International classification of functioning, disability and health. Geneva: WHO; 2001.
- Striking a Balance: Work-Health-Personal Life Conflict in Women and Men with Arthritis and its Association with Work Outcomes
Monique A. M. Gignac
Dorcas E. Beaton
Catherine L. Backman
Elizabeth M. Badley
- Springer US