The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Dr. ART conceived and designed the study, acquired and analysed data and drafted the manuscript. Dr. JSP revised the manuscript and gave final approval for publication.
Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements have been identified as essential for diagnosis and management of both intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). It has gained prominent status in ICUs worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the utility of measurement of rise in bladder pressure to assess IAP levels in blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) patients.
Patients and methods
Thirty patients of BAT with solid organ injuries were included in this study. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured through a Foleys bladder catheter throughout their stay. Bladder pressure was compared with clinical parameters like mean arterial pressures(MAP), respiratory rate(RR), serum creatinine(SC) and abdominal girth(AG) and also with outcome in terms of intervention whether operative(OI) or non-operative(NOI).
Bladder pressure showed significant correlation with MAP (R = −0.418; P = 0.022), AG (R = 0.755; P = 0.000), SC (R = 0.689; P = 0.000) and RR (R = 0.537; P = 0.002). Bladder pressure (R = 0.851; P = 0.000), SC (R = 0.625; P = 0.000), MAP (R = −0.350; P = 0.058) and maximum AG difference (R = 0.634; P = 0.000) showed significant correlation with intervention. In total, 17 patients (56 %) required intervention, 9 patients (30 %) underwent NOI (pigtailing or aspiration) while 8 (27 %) needed OI. More than 3 derailed parameters were associated with 100 % intervention (Mean 3.47, SD-1.23). High APACHE III score on admission (>40) was associated with increased intervention (p = 0.001). Intervention correlates well with Grade of injury (p = 0.000) and not with number of organs injured (p = 0.061). Blood transfusion of 2 or more units of blood was associated with increased intervention (p = 0.000).
Increased bladder pressure and other clinical parameters (MAP, SC, RR and change in AG) correlates well with intervention. Elevated bladder pressure correlates well with other clinical parameters in patients with BAT. Bladder pressure, SC, MAP, RR and AG difference can be used to determine the group of patients that can be managed conservatively and those that would benefit with minimal intervention or exploration. During Non-operative management (NOM) of patients with BAT and multiple solid organ injuries, IAP monitoring may be a simple and objective guideline to suggest further intervention whether NOI or OI. Although routine bladder pressure measurements will result in unnecessary monitoring of large number of patients it is hoped that patients with IAH can be detected early and subsequent ACS with morbid abdominal exploration can be prevented. However the criterion for non-operative failure and the point of decompression needs further refinement to prevent an increase of nontherapeutic operations.