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01.12.2017 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2017

Successful long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: a case report

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2017
Autoren:
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Kei Nishiyama, Nobuaki Shime

Abstract

Background

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an established life-saving procedure for severe acute respiratory failure due to various causes. In general, the duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ranges from 1 to 2 weeks, with withdrawal recommended if no improvement is noted. We report a successful case of long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management for respiratory failure due to invasive pulmonary Aspergillus infection.

Case presentation

A 64-year-old Asian man with no previous underlying medical conditions was transferred to our hospital for fever and dyspnea. On admission, he presented with bilateral diffuse infiltration shadow on X-ray and chest computed tomography readings, and severe hypoxemia with a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio of 55. He was intubated and underwent mechanical ventilation. A bronchial-alveolar lavage was performed prior to administration of antibiotics, and as the bacterial culture was positive for Aspergillus fumigatus, antifungal treatment was then initiated. His respiratory status deteriorated on the 11th admission day, with no improvement on any mechanical ventilator settings. Venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was introduced. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used for an extended period of time, with respiratory improvement delayed until the 39th admission day. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation discontinuation was possible on the 44th day, and he was removed from the ventilator on the 64th day.

Conclusions

Long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation might be considered if the primary causes of respiratory failure necessitating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be expected to be resolved, such as in the case of effective antimicrobial therapy for a definite pathogen. Our case indicates that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be used during treatment of respiratory failure due to invasive aspergillosis for the recommended treatment duration of 4 to 8 weeks.

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