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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Ophthalmology 1/2018

Surgical factors affecting oculocardiac reflex during strabismus surgery

BMC Ophthalmology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Suk-Gyu Ha, Jungah Huh, Bo-Ram Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim



To investigate surgical factors associated with the occurrence of oculocardiac reflex (OCR) and changes in heart rate (HR) during strabismus surgery.


Patients who underwent strabismus surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this study. The HR during surgery was measured at baseline, and at the following points during surgery: traction of the muscle, maximal increase after traction (adrenergic phase), and the cutting of the muscle. OCR was defined as an HR reduction of more than 20% at traction of the muscle, when compared to baseline HR. The HR at each stage during the surgery was compared between patients with and without OCR.


A total of 162 operated muscles from 99 patients were enrolled. The incidence of OCR was 65% in patients. In patients with two muscle surgeries, there were significantly more OCRs in the first operated muscle than in the second operated muscle (p < 0.01). The difference in the decrease in HR in patients with OCR was significantly lower than that in patients without OCR at traction of the muscle, the adrenergic phase, and the cutting of the muscle (all, p < 0.01). The first operated muscle was a significant risk factor associated with the occurrence of OCR (OR = 3.95, p < 0.01).


The first operated muscle in patients with two muscle surgeries was a significant risk factor for OCR. Decreased HR at the traction of the muscle during surgery did not fully recover in patients with OCR.
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