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01.12.2019 | Systematic review | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 1/2019

Surgical procedures for treatment of adult acquired flatfoot deformity: a network meta-analysis

Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research > Ausgabe 1/2019
Xu Tao, Wan Chen, Kanglai Tang
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13018-019-1094-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) represents a spectrum of deformities affecting the foot and the ankle. The optimal management of AAFD remains controversial. We evaluated the efficacy of surgical treatments of AAFD using both direct and indirect evidences.


We searched PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library to identify eligible studies conducted through November 2018. To compare different surgical strategies, we performed a network meta-analysis. A traditional meta-analysis using a random-effects model was used to evaluate the pooled outcome.


A total of 21 studies including 498 patients were collected and analyzed. Network meta-analysis results based on lateral angle talocalcaneal-calcaneal pitch (LAT-CP) indicated that medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy (MDCO) has the highest probability to be the best course of AAFD treatment. However, analyses based on anteroposterior talo-first metatarsal (AP-TMT1) and lateral angle talocalcaneal talo-first metatarsal (LAT-TMT1) suggested that lateral column lengthening (LCL) was the best treatment, while those based on lateral angle talocalcaneal-arch height, anteroposterior talocalcaneal (AP-TC), lateral angle talocalcaneal-talocalcaneal (LAT-TC), anteroposterior-talonavicular coverage (AP-TNC), talonavicular coverage (TNC), and the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) indicated triple arthrodesis (TAO) as the best treatment. Moreover, double arthrodesis (DAO) provided the best treatment effect on the function score. Furthermore, according to traditional meta-analysis, the summary of standardized mean differences (SMD) indicated that the surgical interventions are associated with significant improvements in LAT-CP (SMD − 1.78), LAT-arch height (SMD − 4.95), AOFAS (SMD − 5.24), AP-TMT1 (SMD 2.45), LAT-TMT1 (SMD 1.97), AP-TC (SMD 3.05), LAT-TC (SMD 2.20), AP-TNC (SMD 2.07), TNC (SMD 1.70), and function score (SMD 0.95).


Our findings indicated that MDCO, LCL, TAO, or DAO might be the best surgical approaches for AAFD treatment. Furthermore, patients who received surgical interventions had significant improvements in symptoms and function.
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