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28.07.2017 | Original Article | Ausgabe 6/2017

Journal of Public Health 6/2017

Systematic review and meta-analysis: dairy consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma risk

Journal of Public Health > Ausgabe 6/2017
Yunyun Yang, Ju Zhou, Ying Yang, Zhi Chen, Xiaodong Zheng
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s10389-017-0806-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



This study conducts a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between dairy consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk.

Subjects and methods

The association between consumption of overall dairy, specific dairy products (such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, condensed milk, whey, casein, lactose) and HCC risk has not been assessed before. This association between dairy consumption and HCC risk has been reported in several epidemiological studies, but results were controversial and inconsistent. The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant studies published up to September 20, 2015. The relative risks (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dairy consumption associated with HCC risk were extracted from each included cohort as well as case-control study. In our study, the pooled RR was obtained using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity was evaluated by Q and I 2 statistics.


A total number of 1,084,666 participants and 2041 HCC patients from three cohort studies and five case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled RR of dairy was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.00–1.91, p = 0.00) in all studies. The pooled RR of milk, yoghurt, and cheese was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.67–1.88, p = 0.00), 0.40 (95% CI: 0.14–1.14, p = 0.00) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.02–2.07, p = 0.80), respectively.


This meta-analysis indicates that consumption of overall dairy may be associated with increased HCC risk and a risk factor involved in the etiology of HCC.

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