Immunotoxins are typical therapeutic drugs that can target cancer cells. They exploit the affinity of specific monoclonal antibodies or ligands to cancer cells to deliver a conjugated protein toxin to target sites, thus, attacking the cancer cells.
The immuno-RNase, Onc-V3, showed the stability of Onc-V3 in the blood stream. Flow cytometry showed that apoptosis occurred in the HO-8910PM cells when treated with Onc-V3. Under the confocal microscope, the green fluorescent, FITC-Onc-V3, were located in the cytoplasm, suggesting that Onc-V3 had a function in the cytoplasm of cancer cells. Moreover, after staining by DAPI, the blue fluorescent nuclei showed shrinkage and grainy. Wound healing assay showed that high concentrations of Onc-V3 inhibited cell migration and the transwell invasion assay showed that Onc-V3 could inhibit cell invasion to the basement membrane. Western blot results showed significantly decreased PARP, procaspase-9, and procaspase-3 in Onc-V3-induced apoptosis.
These results of the experiments in vitro had shown that the Onc-V3 could be delivered to the cancer cells accurately and it had strong cytotoxicity on high metastatic cancer cells.
The specific toxicity of Onc-V3 on highly metastatic cancer cells can make it a promising anti-cancer drug by using V3 to target delivery of Onconase.