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08.09.2016 | Ausgabe 4/2017

Surgical Endoscopy 4/2017

Technical description of the microinjection pump (MIP®) and granulometric characterization of the aerosol applied for pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC)

Surgical Endoscopy > Ausgabe 4/2017
Daniel Göhler, Veria Khosrawipour, Tanja Khosrawipour, David Diaz-Carballo, Thomas Albert Falkenstein, Jürgen Zieren, Michael Stintz, Urs Giger-Pabst
Wichtige Hinweise
Daniel Göhler and Veria Khosrawipour equally contributed to the study and both should be considered as first authors.



Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is gaining acceptance in clinical practice, but detailed information about the microinjection pump (MIP®), the generated aerosol and drug distribution is missing.

Analytical methods

Ex vivo granulometric analyses by means of laser diffraction spectrometry were performed for MIP® aerosol characterization. Beside the standard operation conditions, the impact of the volumetric liquid flow rate on the aerosol characteristics was investigated with different liquids. Granulometric results as well as the local drug distribution were verified by ex vivo gravimetric analyses. On the basis of determined MIP® characteristics, the aerosol droplet size, which is necessary for a homogenous intra-abdominal drug distribution, was calculated.


Granulometric analyses showed that the MIP® aerosol consists of a bimodal volume-weighted particle size distribution (PSD3) with a median droplet diameter of x 50,3 = 25 µm. Calculations reveal that the droplet size for a homogenous intra-abdominal drug distribution during PIPAC therapy should be below 1.2 µm. We show that >97.5 vol% of the aerosolized liquid is delivered as droplets with ≥3 µm in diameter, which are primarily deposited on the surface beneath the MIP® by gravitational settling and inertial impaction. These findings were confirmed by ex vivo gravimetric analyses, where more than 86.0 vol% of the aerosolized liquid was deposited within a circular area with a diameter of 15 cm.


The granulometric aerosol properties, as well as the aerodynamic conditions achieved by standard MIP® operation, do not support the idea of widespread or homogenous drug distribution in the abdominal cavity.

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