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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Urology 1/2015

Testicular prostheses in patients with testicular cancer - acceptance rate and patient satisfaction

BMC Urology > Ausgabe 1/2015
Klaus-Peter Dieckmann, Petra Anheuser, Stefan Schmidt, Benjamin Soyka-Hundt, Uwe Pichlmeier, Philipp Schriefer, Cord Matthies, Michael Hartmann, Christian G Ruf
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12894-015-0010-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Klaus-Peter Dieckmann and Petra Anheuser contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

KPD conceived the study, designed the study, made substantial contributions to analyzing and interpreting the data, main contributor to drafting of manuscript. PA contributed to patient enrolment, made substantial contributions to analyzing and interpreting the data, coordinated multicentric data collection. SS contributed substantially to patient enrolment, contributed to drafting of manuscript, BSH contributed substantially to patient enrolment, made substantial contributions to analyzing and interpreting the data. UP contributed to designing of the study, carried out the statistical analysis, contributed to drafting and revising the manuscript. PS contributed substantially to patient enrolment, contributed in analyzing data. CM contributed to conceiving and designing of the study, contributed to patient enrolment, contributed to coordination of multicentric data collection. MH contributed to patient enrolment, contributed to drafting and critically revising the manuscript. CGR participated in designing of the study and contributed substantially to establishing of the questionnaire, contributed to analyzing data, contributed to drafting of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



The loss of a testicle to cancer involves much emotional impact to young males. Little is known about the number of patients with testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) who would accept a testicular prosthesis. Also, knowledge about the satisfaction of implant recipients with the device is limited.


A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 475 consecutive GCT patients. Prior to orchiectomy, all patients were offered prosthesis insertion. Acceptance of implant was noted along with age, clinical stage, histology and year of surgery. 171 implant recipients were interviewed using an 18 item questionnaire to analyze satisfaction with the prosthesis. Statistical analysis involved calculating proportions and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate analysis was performed to look for interrelations between the various items of satisfaction with the implant.


26.9% of the patients accepted a prosthesis. The acceptance rate was significantly higher in younger men. Over-all satisfaction with the implant was “very high” and “high” in 31.1% and 52.4%, respectively. 86% would decide again to have a prosthesis. Particular items of dis-satisfaction were: implant too firm (52.4%), shape inconvenient (15.4%), implant too small (23.8%), position too high (30.3%). Living with a permanent partner had no influence on patient ratings. Multivariate analysis disclosed numerous inter-relations between the particular items of satisfaction.


More than one quarter of GCT patients wish to have a testicular prosthesis. Over-all satisfaction with implants is high in more than 80% of patients. Thus, all patients undergoing surgery for GCT should be offered a testicular prosthesis. However, surgeons should be aware of specific items of dis-satisfaction, particularly shape, size and consistency of the implant and inconvenient high position of the implant within the scrotum. Appropriate preoperative counselling is paramount.
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