Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
The clinical heterogeneity of the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS – OMIM, #188400 and #192430) is a universal challenge leading to diagnostic delay. The aim of this study was to evaluate a low cost strategy for the diagnosis of this condition based upon clinical criteria previously reported. Health professionals, who collected clinical data, from twelve centers were trained in those criteria, which were summed through an online application (CranFlow).
Clinical and laboratorial data of 347 individuals registered from 2008 to 2017 in the Brazilian Database on Craniofacial Anomalies/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, were reviewed. They were divided in two groups: (I) 168 individuals investigated before the definition of the criteria and (II) 179 individuals investigated after the criteria application. All of them were investigated for 22q11.2DS by Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) and/or Multiplex Ligation Probe-dependent Amplification (MLPA), detecting 98 cases with 22q11.2DS. Among the individuals with 22q11.2DS in Group II, 42/53 (79.25%) fulfilled the proposed criteria against 11/53 (20.75%) who did not fulfill them (p < .0001). The association of congenital heart diseases with high predictive value for 22q11.2DS and hypernasal voice were significantly associated to the presence of 22q11.2DS (p = 0.0172 and p < .0001, respectively). In addition, 22q11.2DS was confirmed 3.82 more times when the individuals fulfilled the proposed criteria. Of the 249 cases negative for the typical deletion in 22q11.2, Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA) was performed in 132 individuals and detected pathogenic alterations at other genomic regions in 19 individuals, and variants of uncertain clinical significance in 31 cases.
Therefore, a locus-specific approach could be used to individuals with positive criteria as a cost-effective alternative for 22q11.2DS diagnosis. The authors discuss advantages and suggest ways of implementing this approach to investigate 22q11.2DS in a public health system.