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01.12.2016 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2016 Open Access

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 1/2016

The adequacy of antenatal care services among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth > Ausgabe 1/2016
Yibeltal T. Bayou, Yohana S. Mashalla, Gloria Thupayagale-Tshweneagae



There are recent efforts made to eliminate inequalities in the utilisation of basic health care services. More emphasis is given for improvement of health in developing countries including maternal and child health. However, disparities for the fast-growing population of urban poor are masked by the urban averages. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of antenatal care adequacy among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


This was a quantitative and cross-sectional community based study design which employed a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique to determine the sample. Data was collected using structured questionnaire administered to 870 women aged 15–49 years. Weighted ‘backward selection’ logistic regression models were employed to identify predictors of adequacy of antenatal care.


Majority of slum residents did not have adequate antenatal care services with only 50.3, 20.2 and 11.0 % of the slum resident women initiated antenatal care early, received adequate antenatal care service contents and had overall adequate antenatal care services respectively. Educational status and place of ANC visits were important determinant factors for adequacy of ANC in the study area. Women with secondary and above educational status were 2.7 times more likely to receive overall adequate care compared to those with no formal education. Similarly, clients of private healthcare facilities were 2.2 times respectively more likely to receive overall adequate antenatal care compared to those clients of public healthcare facilities.


In order to improve ANC adequacy in the study area, the policy-making, planning, and implementation processes should address the poor adequacy of ANC among the disadvantaged groups in particular and the slum residents in general.
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