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01.12.2019 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

Cardiovascular Ultrasound 1/2019

The assessment of pressure-volume relationship during exercise stress echocardiography predicts left ventricular remodeling and eccentric hypertrophy in patients with chronic heart failure

Cardiovascular Ultrasound > Ausgabe 1/2019
Iacopo Fabiani, Nicola Riccardo Pugliese, Claudia Santini, Mario Miccoli, Andreina D’Agostino, Ilaria Rovai, Matteo Mazzola, Roberto Pedrinelli, Frank Lloyd Dini



The contractile response of patients with heart failure (HF) may be assessed by exercise stress echocardiography (ESE)-derived indexes. We sought to test whether ESE parameters are useful to identify the risk of adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients with chronic HF and reduced or mildly reduced LV ejection fraction (EF).


We enrolled 155 stabilized patients (age: 62 ± 11 years, 17% female, coronary artery disease 47%) with chronic HF, LV EF ≤50% and LV end-diastolic volume index > 75 ml/m2. All patients underwent a symptom-limited graded bicycle semi-supine ESE, with evaluation of peak stress LV EF, end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR, i.e. LV elastance) and cardiac power output to LV mass (CPOM). A complete echocardiographic study was performed at baseline and after 6 ± 3 months. Adverse LV remodeling was defined as the association of eccentric LV hypertrophy (LV mass: ≥115 g/m2 for male and ≥ 95 g/m2 for women, and relative wall thickness < 0.32) with an increase in LV end-systolic volume index ≥10% at six months.


Adverse LV remodeling was detected in 34 (22%) patients. After adjustment for clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic data, peak ESPVR resulted in the most powerful independent predictor of adverse LV remodeling (OR: 12.5 [95% CI 4.5–33]; p < 0.0001) followed by ischemic aetiology (OR: 2.64 [95% 1.04–6.73]; p = 0.04).


In patients with HF and reduced or mildly reduced EF, a compromised ESE-derived peak ESPVR, that reflects impaired LV contractility, resulted to be the most powerful predictor of adverse LV remodeling.
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