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13.06.2016 | Original Article | Ausgabe 9/2016 Open Access

Netherlands Heart Journal 9/2016

The association between type D personality, and depression and anxiety ten years after PCI

Netherlands Heart Journal > Ausgabe 9/2016
M.N.A. AL-Qezweny, E.M.W.J. Utens, K. Dulfer, B.A.F. Hazemeijer, R-J. van Geuns, J. Daemen, R. van Domburg



There are indications that type D personality and depression are associated in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, at present it is unclear whether this relationship holds in the long term. This study’s aim was to investigate the association between type D personality at 6 months post-PCI (baseline), and depression at 10-year follow-up. A secondary aim was to test the association between type D personality at baseline and anxiety at 10-year follow-up.


A cohort of surviving consecutive patients (N = 534) who underwent PCI between October 2001 and October 2002. Patients completed the type D personality scale (DS14) measuring type D personality at baseline, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measuring anxiety and depression at baseline and at 10 years post-PCI.


At baseline, the prevalence of type D personality was 25 % (135/534). Type D personality patients were more often depressed (42 %) than non-type D personality patients (9 %). Response rate of anxiety and depression questionnaires at 10 years was 75 %. At 10-year follow-up, 31 % of type D personality patients were depressed versus 13 % of non-type D personality patients. After adjustments, baseline type D personality remained independently associated with depression at 10 years (OR = 3.69; 95 % CI [1.89–7.19]). Type D showed a similar association with anxiety at 10 years, albeit somewhat lower (OR = 2.72; 95 % CI [1.31–5.63]).


PCI patients with type D personality had a 3.69-fold increased risk for depression and a 2.72-fold increased risk for anxiety at 10 years of follow-up.
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