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29.10.2018 | Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies - Original Article | Ausgabe 2/2019 Open Access

Journal of Neural Transmission 2/2019

The associations between serum vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 4 with the markers of blood–brain barrier breakdown in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Neural Transmission > Ausgabe 2/2019
Autoren:
Slawomir Michalak, Alicja Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Joanna Rybacka-Mossakowska, Mikolaj Zaborowski, Wojciech Kozubski

Abstract

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a critical step in paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) development. Several cytokines have been implicated in BBB breakdown. However, the exact step-by-step mechanism in which PNS develops is unknown, and the relationship between a systemic neoplasm and BBB is multilevel. The aim of the present study was to examine serum markers of BBB breakdown (S100B protein, neuron-specific enolase, NSE) and concentrations of proinflammatory (TNF-alpha, VEGF) and anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-4), and to establish their interrelationship in patients with PNS. We analyzed 84 patients seropositive for onconeural antibodies that originated from a cohort of 250 cases with suspected PNS. Onconeural antibodies were estimated with indirect immunofluorescence and confirmed with Western blotting. Serum S-100B was estimated using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. NSE, VEGF, TNF-alpha and IL-4 were analyzed with ELISA. We found that S-100B protein and NSE serum concentrations were elevated in PNS patients without diagnosed malignancy, and S-100B additionally in patients with peripheral nervous system manifestation of PNS. Serum VEGF levels showed several abnormalities, including a decrease in anti-Hu positive patients and increase in PNS patients with typical manifestation and/or central nervous system involvement. Increase in TNF-alpha was observed in patients with undetermined antibodies. To conclude, the presence of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in seropositive patients does not affect serum markers of BBB breakdown, with the exception of the group without clinically demonstrated malignancy and patients with peripheral manifestation of PNS. S-100B and NSE might increase during early phase of PNS. VEGF may be involved in typical PNS pathophysiology.

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