The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-291) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
PBSA, IEPR, NRP, APNH, SSM, SK and DS performed samples collection, molecular assays, data analysis, and manuscript writing. KC, SW, FAR, MES, AI, TY, TS, JN, A, B, CB, MY, CA, KJ, and CM collected field samples. AI, H, MES, SPS, FL, WH, and DS designed the study was responsible for management and fund raising for this study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Sabang Municipality, in Aceh Province, Indonesia, plans to initiate a malaria elimination programme in 2013. A baseline survey of the distribution of malaria in the municipality was conducted to lay the foundations for an evidence-based programme and to assess the island’s readiness to begin the elimination process.
The entire population of the municipality was screened for malaria infection and G6PD deficiency. Specimens collected included blood slides, blots and tubes for selected households.
Samples were collected from 16,229 residents. Microscopic examination of the blood smears revealed 12 malaria infections; 10 with Plasmodium falciparum and 2 with Plasmodium vivax. To confirm the parasite prevalence, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis was performed on the entire positive cases by microscopy and randomized 10% of the microscopically negative blood samples. PCR revealed an additional 11 subjects with malaria; one P. falciparum infection from the village of Paya Keunekai, and nine P. vivax infections and one mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infection from the village of Batee Shok. The overall slide positivity rate was 0.074% (CI 95%: 0.070 – 0.078) and PCR corrected prevalence 0,590% (CI 95%: 0.582 – 0.597). Analysis of 937 blood samples for G6PD deficiency revealed two subjects (0.2%) of deficient G6PD. Analysis of several genes of the parasite, such as Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfmdr1, Pfcrt, Pfmsp1, Pfmsp2, Pvdhfr, Pvdhps, Pvmdr1 and host gene, such as G6PD gene revealed that both P. falciparum and P. vivax carried the mutation associated with chloroquine resistance.
Malariometric and host genetic analysis indicated that there is a low prevalence of both malaria and G6PD deficiency in the population of Sabang Municipality. Nevertheless, malaria cases were clustered in three rural villages and efforts for malaria elimination in Sabang should be particularly focused on those three villages.
Additional file 1: Detailed number of MBS subjects and coverage percentage of enrollment.(DOC 55 KB)12936_2012_2425_MOESM1_ESM.doc
Additional file 2: Distribution of respondents by age group.(DOC 36 KB)12936_2012_2425_MOESM2_ESM.doc
Additional file 3: Descriptive Statistic for Hb level by village.(DOC 50 KB)12936_2012_2425_MOESM3_ESM.doc
Additional file 4: Distribution of anaemic status by village.(DOC 51 KB)12936_2012_2425_MOESM4_ESM.doc
Additional file 5: Age distribution of participants in MBS divided per villages.(DOC 36 KB)12936_2012_2425_MOESM5_ESM.doc
Authors’ original file for figure 112936_2012_2425_MOESM6_ESM.png
Authors’ original file for figure 212936_2012_2425_MOESM7_ESM.png
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- The baseline distribution of malaria in the initial phase of elimination in Sabang Municipality, Aceh Province, Indonesia
Puji BS Asih
Ismail E Rozi
Nandha R Pratama
Anggi PN Hidayati
Sylvia S Marantina
Faisal A Rusdjy
Maria E Sumiwi
Simon P Sengkerij
Ferdinand J Laihad
- BioMed Central
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