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05.02.2018 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 6/2018

Clinical Research in Cardiology 6/2018

The contribution of comorbidities to mortality in hospitalized patients with heart failure

Clinical Research in Cardiology > Ausgabe 6/2018
Oliver Riedel, C. Ohlmeier, D. Enders, A. Elsässer, D. Vizcaya, A. Michel, S. Eberhard, N. Schlothauer, J. Berg, E. Garbe
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00392-018-1210-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has a worse prognosis than HF with preserved EF (HFpEF). The study aimed to evaluate whether different comorbidity profiles of HFrEF- and HFpEF-patients or HF-specific mechanisms contribute to a greater extent to this difference.


We linked data from two health insurances to data from a cardiology clinic hospital information system. Patients with a hospitalization with HF in 2005–2011, categorized as HFrEF (EF < 45%) or HFpEF (EF ≥ 45%), were propensity score (PS) matched to controls without HF on comorbidites and medication to assure similar comorbidity profiles of patients and their respective controls. The balance of the covariates in patients and controls was compared via the standardized difference (SDiff). Age-standardized 1-year mortality rates (MR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.


777 HFrEF-patients (1135 HFpEF-patients) were PS-matched to 3446 (4832) controls. Balance between patients and controls was largely achieved with a SDiff < 0.1 on most variables considered. The age-standardized 1-year MRs per 1000 persons in HFrEF-patients and controls were 267.8 (95% CI 175.9–359.8) and 86.1 (95% CI 70.0–102.3). MRs in HFpEF-patients and controls were 166.2 (95% CI 101.5–230.9) and 61.5 (95% CI 52.9–70.1). Thus, differences in MRs between patients and their controls were higher for HFrEF (181.7) than for HFpEF (104.7).


Given the similar comorbidity profiles between HF-patients and controls, the higher difference in mortality rates between HFrEF-patients and controls points more to HF-specific mechanisms for these patients, whereas for HFpEF-patients a higher contribution of comorbidity is suggested by our results.

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Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 32 KB)
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